The 14 reference contexts in paper G. Skitovich S., K. Serova V., N. Shadrova B., O. Pruntova V. (2018) “ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LISTERIA ISOLATED FROM FOOD PRODUCTS” / spz:neicon:veterinary:y:2017:i:2:p:17-20

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    Listeria are not resistant to acids, they do not form spores and capsules, facultative anaerobes, chemoorganotrophs. These bacteria are widely spread in nature and can survive in extreme environmental conditions including wide range of temperatures and presence of bactericides
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    . Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen of food that induces rare but lethal disease in humans with compromised immunity, i.e. listeriosis [5]. Listeriosis is not a wide spread infection.
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    These bacteria are widely spread in nature and can survive in extreme environmental conditions including wide range of temperatures and presence of bactericides [6]. Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen of food that induces rare but lethal disease in humans with compromised immunity, i.e. listeriosis
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    [5]
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    . Listeriosis is not a wide spread infection. The number of confirmed identified cases is significantly lower as compared to salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis but the severity of clinical disease and mortality are higher.
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    The number of confirmed identified cases is significantly lower as compared to salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis but the severity of clinical disease and mortality are higher. Thus out of 2518 listeriosis cases identified in the USA in 1997 20% were lethal and 92% of cases required hospitalization
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    [5, 7, 8]
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    . In the Russian Federation the listeriosis morbidity has been officially reported since 1997. The majority of large scale listeriosis epidemics with high mortality resulted from consumption of food, first of all, cheese and other dairy products, salads, and to a lesser extent – meat, poultry and fish products [6].
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    The majority of large scale listeriosis epidemics with high mortality resulted from consumption of food, first of all, cheese and other dairy products, salads, and to a lesser extent – meat, poultry and fish products
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    [6]
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    . The importance of alimentary transmission of listeriousis is well illustrated by the data received by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) demonstrating that 11% of all products stored in household refrigerators are contaminated with listeria.
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    Resistant strains of microorganisms emerge due to modification of the bacterial cell genome resulted from spontaneous mutations. The acquired resistance becomes fixed and it is inherited by subsequent bacterial generations thus increasing the risk of spread of resistant strains in humans
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    [1]
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    . L. monocytogenes are sensitive to the wide range of antibiotics excluding novel cephalosporines and fosSUMMARY The paper demonstrates results of testing food products and raw materials for Listeria monocytogenes in 2011–2016.
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    Some isolates recovered from food products demonstrate higher resistance to such antibiotics as streptomycin and kanamycin. Antimicrobial resistance is most often predetermined by relative plasmids excluding tetracycline as the gene of resistance to it is included in the chromosome
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    [9]
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    . Listeria are sensitive to penicillin derivatives and resistant to cephalosporins. The majority of macrolides are effective against L. monocytogenes excluding azithromycin and spiramycin in particular.
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    The majority of antibiotics demonstrate in vitro bacteriostatic but not bacteriocidal effect against listeria. This is typical for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, rifampicin
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    . Quinolones demonstrate weak bacteriocide effect against listeria. Antibacterial effect is demonstrated by aminoglycosides, teicoplanin, cotrimoxazole in association with trimethoprim [8]. In view of high frequency of contamination of retailed meat and poultry products with L. monocytogenes demonstrating expressed pathogenic properties and increasing impact on pathology in humans, monitoring o
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    This is typical for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, rifampicin [9]. Quinolones demonstrate weak bacteriocide effect against listeria. Antibacterial effect is demonstrated by aminoglycosides, teicoplanin, cotrimoxazole in association with trimethoprim
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    [8]
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    . In view of high frequency of contamination of retailed meat and poultry products with L. monocytogenes demonstrating expressed pathogenic properties and increasing impact on pathology in humans, monitoring of antimicrobial resistance of such microorganisms isolated from food products is of topical importance.
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    Isolates. 57 L. monocytogenes isolates were used that were recovered from different food products during microbiological tests performed in 2011-2016. L. monocytogenes isolation. Isolation and identification were performed according to GOST 32031-2012
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    . Weighted product sample (25±0.1) g prepared for testing was transferred into sterile plastic bag containing 225 cm3 of Fraser broth for primary enrichment. The sample was homogenized for 1 min and incubated at (30±1) °С during (24±2) hours.
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    /10 μg/disc), cefoperazone (75 μg/disc), ceftazidime (30 μg/disc), ciprofloxacin (5 μg/disc), ofloxacin (5 μg/disc), amikacin (30 μg/disc), azitronit (15 μg/disc) (FBIN RI Pasteur Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, RF). Antimicrobial resistance determination. Susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates to antibiotics was examined according to standard methodical instructions
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    [3, 4]
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    . 20 ml of melted nutrient TSA was added onto 100 mm Petri dishes. Before inoculation the medium surface was dried a little. 0.1 ml of bacterial suspension was evenly spread over the agar surface using spreader.
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    If the test organism propagated close to the disc this microorganism was considered as resistant to the antibiotic. Diameter of inhibition zone including the disc diameter was measured within the accuracy of 1 mm
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    . Escherichia coli No. 25922 was used for quality control. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During the period of 2011–2016 the Microbiology Laboratory of the FGBI “ARRIAH” tested food samples for safety under the National Plan for Monitoring of Residues of Banned and Harmful Substances in Animals, Animal Products and Feed, government contracts and orders of manufacturers of raw
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    These data are consistent with the results obtained in 2015. Aminoglycosides demonstrate bacteriocidal effect against all L. monocytogenes isolates. They bind to 16S rRNA of bacterial ribosome 30S subunit and thus inhibit protein synthesis
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    . However, mutations in 16S rRNA and methylation in particular result in high level resistance to such aminoglycosides as gentamycin, amikacin, etc [6]. Our own data demonstrate (Table 2) that all L. monocytogenes isolates recovered in 2015 and 2016 demonstrated total resistance to this group of antimicrobials.
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    They bind to 16S rRNA of bacterial ribosome 30S subunit and thus inhibit protein synthesis [4]. However, mutations in 16S rRNA and methylation in particular result in high level resistance to such aminoglycosides as gentamycin, amikacin, etc
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    [6]
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    . Our own data demonstrate (Table 2) that all L. monocytogenes isolates recovered in 2015 and 2016 demonstrated total resistance to this group of antimicrobials. Fluoroquinolones demonstrate bacteriocidal effect.
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    , mutations in genes of type II topoisomerases (gyrA и gyrB), which are preferable targets for gram- positive microorganisms lead to the development of high level resistance that is being supported by the study results. It should be emphasized that in the RF fluoroquinolones were officially approved for therapeutic use in farm animals and poultry in 1994
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    [6]
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    . Total resistance of L. monocytogenes to fluoroquinolones identified during this study is indicative of the global consequences of the preparations’ use involving formation of resistance to them. The recovered isolates turned out to be resistant to such antibiotics as laevomycetin and enronit.
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