The 6 reference contexts in paper R. Krivonos A., G. Dzhailidi A., A. Mischenko V., V. Mischenko A., O. Chernykh Yu., V. Shevkoplyas N., S. Dresvyannikova G., D. Kolomiyets V., S. Tikhonov V. (2018) “Problem of lumpy skin disease outbreak prevention and eradication” / spz:neicon:veterinary:y:2017:i:1:p:45-49

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    The pathogen is antigenically similar to pox virus of sheep and goats. According to the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (2016) LSDV susceptible animals include cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus) and Asian water buffalo
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    . LSDV is not transmissible to humans. The portals of entry for LSDV infection are skin, mucous membranes of respiratory organs and gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva carrying the virus to lymph nodes through the lymphatic system, where the virus propagates and is carried throughout the organism, causing diseasespecific nodular lesions [9, 18].
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    The portals of entry for LSDV infection are skin, mucous membranes of respiratory organs and gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva carrying the virus to lymph nodes through the lymphatic system, where the virus propagates and is carried throughout the organism, causing diseasespecific nodular lesions [9, 18]. LSD can result in either acute infection or chronic infection
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    . There are two routes of LSDV transmission outside the outbreak: 1) via infected animals and animals during the incubation period, actively excreting the virus. In this case the source of infection functions not only as an excreter but also as a virus carrier over long distances.
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    In this case the source of infection functions not only as an excreter but also as a virus carrier over long distances. The LSDV spread is likely to be related to cattle drive [1, 6, 13]. No carrier state in animals for LSD has been reported
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    . 2) via passive (mechanical) intermediate virus vectors – contaminated livestock products, feeds, personnel, transport vehicles, animals and animal care products. It has been proved that LSDV can be mechanically SettlementsCattle number Diseased animals Number (animals) Percent 116284.94 28755.75 39655.21 4471102.12 514964.03 621094.29 71915.26 812853.91 Total1322493
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    Some authors consider that lumpy skin disease is an obligate transmissive disease [3, 13, 15]. However, references given in the paper lack data on the most important transmission components: vector competence and vector ability of insects being the LSDV transmission vectors
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    . That confirms reports of some authors that bloodsucking insects, including flies and ticks, play the role of mechanical transmission vectors [1, 16, 21, 22]. Infectious animal diseases with the pathological process registered in different organs of the respiratory system are considered aerogenic infections.
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    For instance, in case of LSD introduction in the territory of Ukraine and negative development of the epidemic situation, the approximate losses in productive herds are estimated as follows: death of productive cattle — 40-70%; lifelong production decrease — 30-40%; death of calves — up to 90%; complete disposal of milk from quarantined herds — 28 days
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    . Other authors consider that lumpy skin disease causes 45-65% decrease in economic effectiveness of livestock production [20]. For many years LSD occurrence was limited to Central and North Africa.
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    ruminant street’ was established in the relative proximity to the RF and the EC, covering the territory from the Eastern Mediterranean Region to Central Asia, including Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, the Arabian Peninsula. In this regard it is inevitable that livestock population increases and conditions are created for occurrence of different pathogens
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    . In 2013 the disease was registered in Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Iraq and Egypt. In 2014 LSD was detected in Turkey, Lebanon, Aerbaijan, Iraq, Egypt, NoRaionsDateTranshumance zonesOutbreak number Diseased гол.% 1Kumtorkalisky 04.10.15-3190.7 2Khasavyurtovsky 11.11.15-293231.1 3Babayurtovsky 30.09.15-8900.9 4Kizlyarsky09.11.15-42422.2 5Kizilyurtovsky07.10.15-10190.3 6Tarumovsky28.10.1
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