The 9 reference contexts in paper J. Arous B., L. Dupuis ., J. Arous B., L. Dupuis . (2018) “Вакцинные масляные адъюванты для развития аквакультуры // Vaccine oil adjuvants for the development of aquaculture” / spz:neicon:veterinary:y:2016:i:4:p:62-65

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    Today, fish from aquaculture represent 40% of the whole fish consumption globally. It is expected that in 2025 it will be 50%. More than 30 species of fish are produced, as well as shellfish and crustaceans
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    . Until 1980, very few fish vaccines were used in aquaculture. In 1982, vaccines only existed for 2 diseases (Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) and Vibrio anguillarum). Today, vaccines have been developed for more than 25 diseases of fish.
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    It is considered that introduction of mass vaccination in the salmonid industry based on water-in-oil emulsions is one of the major success stories in the growth of the global salmon farming industry
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    . It allowed the salmonid production to grow from a few hundred thousand tonnes during the early 1990s to more than 1.3 million metric tonnes in 2012 (Fig. 1). The role of the oil adjuvant in the success of vaccination of salmonids is important.
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    It is indeed the stability and slow release of the adjuvanted antigen that allows single intra-peritoneal injection to protect through the 2 to 4 years grow-out period of salmons. This property made vaccination an economical option for preventing disease and led to almost universal adoption by salmon farmers within a few years
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    . Today, the practice of vaccination by intraperitoneal injection has been slowly transferring to non-salmonid species. This is an important transition as the major growth in finfish aquaculture is now occurring in warm-water species such as tilapia.
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    Oral administration consists in mixing the vaccine with the fish feed. Both methods are easier to implement than injection, but their efficacy has been until now limited. They are usually used as a complement to boost injectable vaccines
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    , or for vaccination of juveniles when injection is not yet possible. The development of immersion and oral vaccines for fish will require dedicated adjuvants or formulations to improve their efficacy.
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    As fish are sensitive to IP injection, oil adjuvants must be selected carefully to avoid viscosity and injectability issues (especially in cold water fish) and local reactions at the site of injection, such as melanisation and adhesions in the peritoneal cavity
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    . Such reactions should be avoided as they induce a loss of economic value. The type of oil (mineral, metabolizable, synthetic) and the quality of the oil are critical to ensure the safety and efficacy of vaccines.
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    In particular, Montanide™ ISA 763A VG is a metabolizable oil based water-in-oil adjuvant that has been shown to be safe and highly efficient for injection of diverse fish species, such as salmons, trouts, tilapia, seabass, turbot, catfish, ect.
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    . This adjuvant has been used for commercial vaccines formulation in the last decades. Montanide™ ISA 763A VG is a safe adjuvant that induces only minor reactions after injection. In a safety study for sutchi catfish Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine, Montanide™ ISA 763A VG was formulated with inactivated antigen (109 CFU/ dose) and 0.1 ml of vaccine was injected to 2x30 catfish of 15 to 30 g.
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    were assessed following Spielberg scoring scale (score 0 (no reaction to score 6 (global adhesion to the organs)). 75% of the fish had score 0 reaction, and no fish showed adhesion above score 1 (Fig. 4). In another study, the use of Montanide™ ISA 763A VG in a turbot vaccine against Edwardsiella tarda increased strongly the duration of immune response compared to non adjuvanted vaccine
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    . At 1 month post injection, 100% of fish vaccinated with the adjuvanted vaccine were protected, compared to 80% in the non adjuvanted group. At 6 months post injection, still 90% of fish vaccinated with the adjuvanted vaccine were still protected, compared to 20% only in the non adjuvanted group [2].
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    At 1 month post injection, 100% of fish vaccinated with the adjuvanted vaccine were protected, compared to 80% in the non adjuvanted group. At 6 months post injection, still 90% of fish vaccinated with the adjuvanted vaccine were still protected, compared to 20% only in the non adjuvanted group
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    . These results and others show that the use of adapted water in oil adjuvant is necessary to protect fish on the long term with only one injection. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order to improve the efficacy of immersion and oral vaccines, dedicated adjuvant formulations have been developed and tested.
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    Montanide™ IMS adjuvants are aqueous adjuvants composed of a micro-emulsion and containing an immunostimulating compound. It was shown that immersion vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout was improved by the addition of the micro-emulsion adjuvant Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG
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    . This study showed that the vaccine against yersiniosis formulated with Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG induced a strong and long term humoral and cellular immunity, and that the addition of adjuvant allowed reaching above 90% of protection against the disease after challenge, over 10 weeks after vaccination.
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