The 21 reference contexts in paper V. Zakharov M., A. Kononov V., V. Mischenko A. (2018) “Cases of detection of serotype 14 bluetongue vaccine-like virus in the RF and European countries in 2011-2012” / spz:neicon:veterinary:y:2015:i:1:p:20-25

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    In June 2012 pathological materials were also sent to the EU Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue (Pirbright, Great Britain) and on 22 November 2012 it was confirmed that the virus belonged to serotype 14
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    . The designated as RUS2011/01 strain had 99.9% identity with vaccine strain BTV-14RSArrr/14 included as a compound of the commercial polyvalent attenuated vaccine of RSA origin (Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP – South Africa)) from a primary bottle A containing bluetongue viruses of 1, 4, 6, 12 and 14 serotypes.
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    Those findings enabled VNIIVViM researchers to put forward an assumption at the Conference of Reference Laboratories for Bluetongue in December 2012 that serotype 14 bluetongue virus circulated in the western part of the Russian Federation at least during the last two years especially as no systemic investigations for bluetongue were held among local cattle
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    . The epidemiological monitoring of cattle farms in the Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts carried out by FGBI «ARRIAH» researchers demonstrated no bluetongue clinical manifestation. Repeatedly addressing the European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers the Rosselkhoznadzor Management expressed a serious concern due to detection in imported from Germany animals of serotype 1
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    Practically at the same time the Baltic countries and Poland reported about the detection in their territories of serotype 14 bluetongue-positive animals. The EU Commission for Animal Health and Welfare reported on its site
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    in December 2012 that Lithuania notified the EU Commission on 13 November 2012 about detection in its territory of serotype 14 bluetongue-positive cattle. Fifty one animals from 27 farms in different regions were tested.
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    Lithuanian regions where bluetongue seropositive animals were found are shown in Fig. 2. It is important to note that at the meeting of the EU Commission for Animal Health and Welfare on 4 December 2012
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    representatives of Spain reported that among imported from Lithuania cattle 9 animals were serotype 14 bluetongue-positive by PCR; data were confirmed by blood sample testings in Pirbright. Animals with a positive response were destroyed.
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    THE RF AND EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN 2011–2012 SUMMARY Associated with isolation of vaccine-like attenuated bluetongue virus cases of 14 serotype bluetongue virus detection in European countries and the RF in 2011–2012 are analysed in the paper. Key words: bluetongue, virus serotypes, live vaccines. INTRODUCTION A bluetongue problem continues to attract careful attention of veterinary specialists
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    [1, 3, 4, 10, 28]
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    due to the disease wide geographic spread in the world and, particularly, in Europe. Indeed, according to the data of the OIE and EU Animal Disease Notification System [11, 27] the occurrence of more than 2.6 thousand of serotype 1 and 4 bluetongue outbreaks was registered in European countries only at the end of September 2014 (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Spain, Italy
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    INTRODUCTION A bluetongue problem continues to attract careful attention of veterinary specialists [1, 3, 4, 10, 28] due to the disease wide geographic spread in the world and, particularly, in Europe. Indeed, according to the data of the OIE and EU Animal Disease Notification System
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    [11, 27]
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    the occurrence of more than 2.6 thousand of serotype 1 and 4 bluetongue outbreaks was registered in European countries only at the end of September 2014 (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Spain, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Turkey).
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    The detailed epidemic analysis of the bluetongue situation for the given period was undertaken by V.V. Makarov et al. in a series of special publications on the subject including those within the covers of the journal «Veterinaria segodnya»
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    [2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
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    . The present paper is aimed at the analysis of data of international information systems of official OIE, FAO, EU sources on cases of serotype 14 bluetongue virus registration in European countries and the Russian Federation in 2011-2012 as, from our point of view, these materials have found no proper reflection in national scientific publications.
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    in Russia of serotype 14 bluetongue virus was reported for the first time by GNU «VNIIVViM» (Pokrov) specialists carrying out bluetongue monitoring among imported into the country pedigree animals in the information presented at the annual conference EPIZONE in June 2012 as well as at the annual meeting of reference laboratories for bluetongue in Great Britain in December 2012
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    [14, 16]
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    . The cattle consignment was imported on 29 August 2011 in OOO «Pedigree Centre Smolensky Gallovey» from Germany (Hagen). In the territory of Germany animals were tested on 8-20 August for bluetongue using ELISA and PCR with a negative result.
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    Fig. 1. Sites of detection of bluetongue-seropositive cattle and small cattle in the Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts (VNIIVViM) Fig. 2. Lithuanian regions where bluetongue seropositive animals were found
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    Fig. 3. Geographical distribution of farms with bluetongue seropositive animals in Latvia [20] Region geography Serotype 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526 AfricaIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII-II-I-I-Middle East-I-I-I--SI-SSSIIS-SS---I-I Pakistan + IndiaIIIISISSISSSSSSIII-SS-I--AustraliaIII---I-I--S--II---II-I--South-East Asia and IndonesiaIIII--I-IISIS--IISSSI-I--ChinaIIII-------I--II----I----USAII
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    Sites of detection of bluetongue-seropositive cattle and small cattle in the Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts (VNIIVViM) Fig. 2. Lithuanian regions where bluetongue seropositive animals were found [22] Fig. 3. Geographical distribution of farms with bluetongue seropositive animals in Latvia
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    Region geography Serotype 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526 AfricaIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII-II-I-I-Middle East-I-I-I--SI-SSSIIS-SS---I-I Pakistan + IndiaIIIISISSISSSSSSIII-SS-I--AustraliaIII---I-I--S--II---II-I--South-East Asia and IndonesiaIIII--I-IISIS--IISSSI-I--ChinaIIII-------I--II----I----USAIII-II---II-II--I-I--I-I-Central and South AmericaI-II-I-I--IIII-SI--------Europe*IIII-I-IIIR----I
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    As is evident from Fig. 3, farms with bluetongue-seropositive animals are located practically in the whole territory of Latvia. Estonia notified the EU Commission by a fax dated 22 November 2012 about detection of bluetongue-seropositive animals in the Saare region (Fig. 4) without any additional clarifications. Poland
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    also reported suspected bluetongue among cattle to the EU in January 2012; it sent bovine blood samples to Pirbright. But no accurate results were obtained. At a later stage, as a result of monitoring investigations within the framework of the National Programme for Bluetongue Surveillance bluetongue virus genome was detected in the IIIrd quarter 2012 in animal blood from 3 farms in the regi
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    At a later stage, as a result of monitoring investigations within the framework of the National Programme for Bluetongue Surveillance bluetongue virus genome was detected in the IIIrd quarter 2012 in animal blood from 3 farms in the region bordering Lithuania and Belarus (Fig. 5). The Reference Laboratory in Pirbright
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    confirmed the infection of animals with serotype 14 bluetongue virus in Poland, Latvia and Lithuania. The virus had 100% identity with the reference vaccine strain BTV-14 South Africa included as a compound of the commercial polyvalent attenuated vaccine of Onderstepoort Biological Products origin (OBP – South Africa) and 99.9% identity with Russian strain RUS2011/01 isolated in the Smolens
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    But for all that, one cannot leave out of account the fact that imported in August 2011 animals were twice reason for approval of a special EU Directive No. 2012/5/EU of 14 March 2012 significantly restricting the use of «modified live vaccines» against bluetongue in Europe
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    . These provisions are consolidated in the OIE «Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals» as amended in 2014 (Chapter C, point 2.3.2) recognizing the confirmed justification of concerns associated with a possibility of vaccine virus transmission by insect carriers with subsequent spread of virus in vector population and infection of intact ruminants [13].
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    These provisions are consolidated in the OIE «Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals» as amended in 2014 (Chapter C, point 2.3.2) recognizing the confirmed justification of concerns associated with a possibility of vaccine virus transmission by insect carriers with subsequent spread of virus in vector population and infection of intact ruminants
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    . As for the given serotype 14 virus spread in a number of European countries in 2011–2012, representatives of reference laboratories for bluetongue (Pirbright, Great Britain; Spain; VNIIVViM, Russia) are of the opinion that isolated strains are reassortants containing genome segments of different vaccine strains of South Africa origin [23].
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    As for the given serotype 14 virus spread in a number of European countries in 2011–2012, representatives of reference laboratories for bluetongue (Pirbright, Great Britain; Spain; VNIIVViM, Russia) are of the opinion that isolated strains are reassortants containing genome segments of different vaccine strains of South Africa origin
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    . At the same time VNIIVViM researchers consider the detection in 2011–2012 of 14 serotype virus circulation among animals in the Kaluga, Smolensk Oblasts and neighboring regions as an evidence of bluetongue stationary affected areas [5].
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    At the same time VNIIVViM researchers consider the detection in 2011–2012 of 14 serotype virus circulation among animals in the Kaluga, Smolensk Oblasts and neighboring regions as an evidence of bluetongue stationary affected areas
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    . CONCLUSION We are of the opinion that the fact of specific antibody detection in the course of monitoring investigations for bluetongue is not an evidence of animal affection with bluetongue. It is necessary to carry out an additional epidemiological investigation in order to establish the origin of these antibodies, nevertheless, while carrying out mass screening investigations researchers
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    investigation in order to establish the origin of these antibodies, nevertheless, while carrying out mass screening investigations researchers confine themselves on frequent occasions only to the first stage. Trade-import operations for import in the country of pedigree and commercial ruminants should be performed under strict observance of «Terrestrial Animal Health Code» (OIE)
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    requiring submission of an international veterinary certificate confirming the fulfillment of all conditions for prevention of bluetongue introduction. At the same time we think that in cases of import in the RF it is necessary to prohibit officially the purchase in foreign countries of ruminants for zoos and circus, pedigree, tested for bluetongue in Germany with a negative result and later
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    The understandable question now arises of whether animals were affected in the territory of the Smolensk Oblast after delivery from Germany? The Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of Great Britain
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    carries out predictive investigations due to spread of animal contagious diseases. The Department made an assumption that vaccine virus could be most probably introduced with vaccinated animals from the region where serotype 14 virus was circulating.
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    Indeed, antibodies and later serotype 6 virus were detected in cattle in neighboring territories of the Netherlands and Germany in October-November 2008 in the course of the bluetongue epidemic caused by serotype 8 virus. Affected susceptible animals demonstrated bluetongue mild clinical signs
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    . Later in Belgium serotype 6 virus was detected in calves imported from the Netherlands. The virus was homologous to South –African reference strain used in a live vaccine. Belgium [19] reported in November 2008 about the similar situation but with circulation of serotype 11 bluetongue virus when in the course of bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic antibodies were detected in a cow with a dead ne
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    Affected susceptible animals demonstrated bluetongue mild clinical signs [17, 18]. Later in Belgium serotype 6 virus was detected in calves imported from the Netherlands. The virus was homologous to South –African reference strain used in a live vaccine. Belgium
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    reported in November 2008 about the similar situation but with circulation of serotype 11 bluetongue virus when in the course of bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic antibodies were detected in a cow with a dead newborn calve and later in 12 out of 7,294 animals on 8 out of 208 farms and serotype 11 virus genome was detected by PCR and the virus was to a high degree similar to the virus used in th
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    The aforementioned measure will prevent the introduction and subsequent circulation of vaccine-like strains which will significantly decrease the efficacy of diagnostic investigations for bluetongue. It is also necessary to take into consideration provisions of the aforementioned OIE Manual
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    that attenuated vaccine strains can be detected in semen from vaccinated bulls and rams and, moreover, if virus is not detected the vaccination with a live vaccine lowers semen quality.
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