The 7 references with contexts in paper Z. Usman A., O. Kehinde (2017) “COCOA PRODUCTION AND QUALITY IN NIGERIA: AN ANALYSIS OF PRE AND POST-LIBERALIZATION EFFECT” / spz:neicon:stavapk:353

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Adeniyi O. R., Ogunsola G. O Cocoa production and related social-economic and climate factors: A case study of Ayedire Local government Area of Osun State // Agricultural Science, 2014, 2 (4), P. 01–13.
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    Despite the effect of crude oil discovery on the country’s agricultural sector, cocoa still maintains the second most valued export produce after petroleum and the most valued non-oil export produce
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    (Adeniyi and Ogunsola, 2014).
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    Nigeria is currently the fourth and third largest cocoa producer in the World and in Africa respectively (FAO, 2010). She upholds the largest market economy status after the rebasing of its GDP in 2014, but in reality the recent depreciation in the value of its naira due to the price fall in crude oil price is presently an eminent warning of looming economic problems such as increasing

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Gilbert C. L. Cocoa Market Liberalization in Retro-spect // Review of Business and Economics. 2009. No 54. P. 294–312.
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    farmers gets the bunch of the cut in the worth of their produce, this has continuously refl ect on the low investment in cocoa production and quality management. 1400 1600 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Figure 1 – cocoa production in tonnes between 2010 and 2013 Source: www.statista.com. Authors’ own editing, 2015 2.0 STRUCTURE OF PRE AND POST-LIBERsystem
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    (Gilbert 2009).
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    The signifi cant difference between the two is that while the former is in total control of the government which Gilbert 2009 described as the British monopoly-monopsony system, the caisse system still accommodates the presence of private individuals but with the regulations solely owned and controlled by the government.

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    Authors’ own editing, 2015 2.0 STRUCTURE OF PRE AND POST-LIBERsystem (Gilbert 2009). The signifi cant difference between the two is that while the former is in total control of the government which
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    Gilbert 2009
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    described as the British monopoly-monopsony system, the caisse system still accommodates the presence of private individuals but with the regulations solely owned and controlled by the government.

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    (Anti-Slavery International, 2004). 2.2 Structure of Post-liberalization System: Partial and Full Liberalized System It is of noteworthy to state that despite the pressure of the Ghana COCOBOD, its cocoa industry never succumbed to full price liberalization of its sector and has thus been known to enjoy high premium prices (GAIN report, 2012) of about 3–5 %
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    (Gilbert 2009).
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    It rather transformed to the partially liberalized system. The partially liberalized system features the presence of the state and private control system. In this system the function of the Ghana COCOBOD include, determination of cocoa purchase season, monitor and control of exports and internal marketing of cocoa beans, subsidize seeds to farmers, seed improvement/hybridization, cocoa

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    On the basis of control of this price volatility, while the partially liberalized system in Ghana strictly controls middle men activities and the government is still responsible for cocoa exportation, this approach has favoured the quality attribute for the Ghana’s cocoa and has earned it the best premium among its Africa’s cocoa producers
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    (Gilbert, 2009).
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    The Nigeria liberalized system has recorded an increment in cocoa output more than the marketing board days as shown in the fi gure 4, but has not improved in quality; it is obvious that the same tale befalls Cameroon’s cocoa industry.

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    On the other hand, the Ivorian system cannot however be said to be a superduper, but has shown a surviving trend as world leading cocoa producer and has fl awed liberalisation (Gilbert 2009), with yet a limit to quantity exported, price control and price stabilization, like the Ghana cocoa, all was to create a buffer and protect farmers. According to
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    Gilbert, 2009,
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    the Ivorian technique has rather created a chaotic and expensive system. On the following note it is recommended that as much as government should not be involved in cocoa marketing. It must mandatorily play its role in providing necessary incentives at the farm levels such as provision of inputs at subsidized rate, this would to a large extent decrease farmers’ depe

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Hamzat R. A., Olaifa F. E., Temitope A. A. Utilization of cocoa pod husk as partial replacement for maize in the diets of African Catfi sh (Clarias gariepienus) // Book of Abstract of the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference. Costa Rica, 2006.
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    , the LBAs have caused the exit of some exporters; while farmers are at their mercy for input provision, the exporters are at their mercy to deliver cocoa based on previous advances, huge indebtedness has occurred, trust is what the present cocoa industry thrives on (Hamzat, 2005) but has seen little of it . All these, greatly adds to the quality issues of cocoa
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    (Hamzat et al, 2006).
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    The liberalization process has further promoted a competitive level for exporters and local buying agents, while they protect themselves from the cocoa price volatility, farmers bears most of the brunt and are surcharged at a certain percentage based on quality issues of their cocoa.

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Basri H. A. Indonesian cocoa industry // International Cocoa research Conference. San Jose Costa Rica, 2006.
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    West Africacompetitors, Indonesia cocoa industry has small-holders farmers’ family of 800,000, in major producing areas of Sulawesi Island, Sumateria Island, Bali, Maluku and Papua (Har Adri Basr, 2006). With 992,000 ha of land under cultivation , small holder farmers holds 89 % of farm lands, 5 % and 6 % for Government estate and private estate respectively (Har ADI
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    BASRI, 2006).
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    The yield of smallholders cocoa farmers is more than the West African (like Nigeria with over a million hectares under cocoa cultivation) to the tune of 1299kg/ha and contributes 88 % of total production (World bank, 2002),it can be as high as over 2000 kg/ha in areas of low pest and diseases incidence (Muhammad Arysyad, 2007), a major factor responsible for

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Oguntade A. E., Cocoa Value Chain in Nigeria: past and present. Akure, 2010.
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    The trend of cocoa production in Nigeria is widely attributed to pre and post oil boom, because of its characteristics as a one-time mainstay of the economy with an immense contribution in the 1960s and 1970s (Adeyeye, C. T., 2011, A. E.
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    Oguntade, 2010).
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    The peak of production was recorded at 308,000 tonnes in early seventies putting the country among 1.1 Cocoa and its Importance Cocoa(Theobroma cacao), from the Genus Theobroma and family Stericuliacea, originated from the the highest cocoa producers, it recorded a decline in early 1980s to 155,000 tonnes (Adeyeye C.

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    also appoints its license buying agent which could be individuals group or cooperative.In the cause of balancing prices, producers receive prices far below world prices with high taxes, this was a disincentive to increasing production , also prominent was ineffi ciency and corruption in the board which led to its scrapping in 1986 (Joshua 2014, A.E
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    Oguntade, 2010,
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    Anti-Slavery international, 2004). The Ivorian and Cameroonians Cocoa sector earlier experienced the caisse system (Caisse de Stabilisation et duSoutien des Prix des Produits Agricoles-Caistab). The caisse system although was devoid of total control of cocoa produce.

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Ojo A. Refl ections on the Nigerian Cocoa Economy. Akure: Precious Pearls books Nigeria, 2005.
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    The local buying agent and exporters in Nigeria to an extent have strong presence and controlling effect on cocoa farmers because farmers’ are left at their mercy for input supply and a promise to deliver their cocoa beans
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    (Ojo 2005).
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    Also, the LBAs have caused the exit of some exporters; while farmers are at their mercy for input provision, the exporters are at their mercy to deliver cocoa based on previous advances, huge indebtedness has occurred, trust is what the present cocoa industry thrives on (Hamzat, 2005) but has seen little of it .

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Sanusi, R. A., Lawal J. A. (2006). A comparative analysis of Agricultural credits to Tree Crop projects and Other Agricultural Projects in Nigeria: A case of Nigerian Agricultural, Cooperative and Rural Development Bank. Ogun Journal of Agricultural Sciences.
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    The system features a poor backward investment towards improving production; cocoa farmers are faced with increasing cost of pesticides, which apart from labour is a cogent need in cocoa production, insuffi cient fund to purchase agro-chemicals and poor access to credit institutions
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    (Sanusi and Lawal, 2006).
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    The local buying agent and exporters in Nigeria to an extent have strong presence and controlling effect on cocoa farmers because farmers’ are left at their mercy for input supply and a promise to deliver their cocoa beans (Ojo 2005).