The 19 reference contexts in paper A. Ivolga, J. Zawadka (2017) “AGRITOURISM AS A RAISING DRIVER OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN RUSSIA” / spz:neicon:stavapk:361

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    The concept of sustainability in rural areas should integrate environmental, economical, cultural and social factors. Here is where a sustainability transforms into a multifunctionality. According to Erokhin, Heijman, and Ivolga
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    , one of the most valuable competitive advantages of rural areas over urban ones is that they harmoniously combine natural and cultural values into a unique mixture of attractions.
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    As an alternative source of income in addition to the traditional agricultural production, rural recreation is especially important in developing countries and economies in transition, where investments in agriculture and volume of state support are lower in comparison to the developed countries of the EU and the USA
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    . The diversity of rural culture in various countries (and even in particular rural areas within a country) provides opportunities to build attractive and competitive tourist products [17]. Potentially, agritourism provides alternative employment opportunities, which give rural inhabitants a sustainable income that is competitive in comparison to that of urban territories.
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    important in developing countries and economies in transition, where investments in agriculture and volume of state support are lower in comparison to the developed countries of the EU and the USA [16]. The diversity of rural culture in various countries (and even in particular rural areas within a country) provides opportunities to build attractive and competitive tourist products
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    . Potentially, agritourism provides alternative employment opportunities, which give rural inhabitants a sustainable income that is competitive in comparison to that of urban territories. The approach implemented in the paper is the application of the principle of sustainable development to tourism.
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    Sustainable tourism seeks to sustain the quantity, quality and productivity of both human and natural resource systems over time, while respecting and accommodating the dynamics of such systems. Drawing on the OECD, research suggests that rural regions need to address the particular challenges of business capacity infrastructure, human capital, innovation and services
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    . Tourism represents an important share of the service economy, both domestically and internationally, and the growth sector. According to Erokhin [5], the development of rural tourism increases employment in rural areas, helps to retain people in rural areas (and even attract them from cities), improves the quality of life by the development of rural infrastructure and related in
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    Drawing on the OECD, research suggests that rural regions need to address the particular challenges of business capacity infrastructure, human capital, innovation and services [18]. Tourism represents an important share of the service economy, both domestically and internationally, and the growth sector. According to Erokhin
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    [5]
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    , the development of rural tourism increases employment in rural areas, helps to retain people in rural areas (and even attract them from cities), improves the quality of life by the development of rural infrastructure and related industries.
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    Approaches to Multifunctional Development of Rural Areas and Agritourism Agritourism is considered as dedicated travels to rural areas with relatively undisturbed ecosystems and ethno-cultural complexes, which have a direct impact on the rural development and are subjects for control in the purposes of sustainable rural development
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    . The given concept includes two major definitions. Firstly, agritourism is referred to as an environmentally-oriented tourist product on the domestic and international tourist markets. Secondly, agritourIn the majority of the developed countries, rural communities do not make a critical impact on the gross ism is expected to act as one of the tools for sustainable rural deve
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    Secondly, agritourIn the majority of the developed countries, rural communities do not make a critical impact on the gross ism is expected to act as one of the tools for sustainable rural development
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    . Following this idea, agritourism may be defi ned as a kind of activity, related to organization of dedicated travels to rural areas, which provides tourists with a complex tourist product (accommodation, meals, excursion services and entertainment), refl ects and preserves the natural and cultural identity of regions and ensures economic benefi ts for hosting communities through the
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    For the purposes of the current research the issues of unemployment and depopulation in rural areas, and perspectives of alternative income opportunities are addressed in the works of Kundius and Chermyanina
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    , Jelocnik and Ivolga [14], and Bondarenko [2], along with the issues of intensifi cation of economic initiatives in the rural areas through the development of special economic zones of tourist and recreational type.
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    For the purposes of the current research the issues of unemployment and depopulation in rural areas, and perspectives of alternative income opportunities are addressed in the works of Kundius and Chermyanina [15], Jelocnik and Ivolga
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    , and Bondarenko [2], along with the issues of intensifi cation of economic initiatives in the rural areas through the development of special economic zones of tourist and recreational type.
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    For the purposes of the current research the issues of unemployment and depopulation in rural areas, and perspectives of alternative income opportunities are addressed in the works of Kundius and Chermyanina [15], Jelocnik and Ivolga [14], and Bondarenko
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    , along with the issues of intensifi cation of economic initiatives in the rural areas through the development of special economic zones of tourist and recreational type. International practices and success stories concerning the sphere of sustainable rural development by means of tourism are borrowed from the works of Cvijanovic and Vuković (investigations of perspectiv
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    International practices and success stories concerning the sphere of sustainable rural development by means of tourism are borrowed from the works of Cvijanovic and Vuković (investigations of perspectives of rural tourism in separate localities of Serbia and other Danube countries)
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    , Vuković, Kljajić, and Arsić (research of the role of rural tourism in the promotion of multifunctional agriculture) [24], Zawadka [25-27] and Erokhin et al. (comparative analysis of various practices of rural tourism and rural development in Russia and countries of the Eastern Europe) [8].
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    practices and success stories concerning the sphere of sustainable rural development by means of tourism are borrowed from the works of Cvijanovic and Vuković (investigations of perspectives of rural tourism in separate localities of Serbia and other Danube countries) [3], Vuković, Kljajić, and Arsić (research of the role of rural tourism in the promotion of multifunctional agriculture)
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    , Zawadka [25-27] and Erokhin et al. (comparative analysis of various practices of rural tourism and rural development in Russia and countries of the Eastern Europe) [8]. The above listed approaches to the problem of rural areas multifunctionality were primarily focused on the issue of the rural economy diversifi cation.
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    and success stories concerning the sphere of sustainable rural development by means of tourism are borrowed from the works of Cvijanovic and Vuković (investigations of perspectives of rural tourism in separate localities of Serbia and other Danube countries) [3], Vuković, Kljajić, and Arsić (research of the role of rural tourism in the promotion of multifunctional agriculture) [24], Zawadka
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    [25-27]
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    and Erokhin et al. (comparative analysis of various practices of rural tourism and rural development in Russia and countries of the Eastern Europe) [8]. The above listed approaches to the problem of rural areas multifunctionality were primarily focused on the issue of the rural economy diversifi cation.
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    of rural tourism in separate localities of Serbia and other Danube countries) [3], Vuković, Kljajić, and Arsić (research of the role of rural tourism in the promotion of multifunctional agriculture) [24], Zawadka [25-27] and Erokhin et al. (comparative analysis of various practices of rural tourism and rural development in Russia and countries of the Eastern Europe)
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    [8]
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    . The above listed approaches to the problem of rural areas multifunctionality were primarily focused on the issue of the rural economy diversifi cation. But this is not a suffi cient interpretation range of the analysed category.
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    Understanding the multifunctionality of rural areas wider than as the socio-economic activities and taking into account their natural and cultural functions is consistent with the principle of sustainable development, understood as achieving simultaneous progress in three areas, i.e. economic, social and environmental. According to Sillignakis
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    , the concept of sustainability integrates environmental, economic, cultural and social considerations. In rural areas, population numbers may conceal an ageing population, with younger people moving to the cities for highly rewarded employment opportunities.
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    There is the recognition that to be sustainable, the preservation of local identities (environmental, cultural, social, historical, etc.) must be grounded in the communities and societies, which exploit those identities
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    . That is why stakeholders in rural areas (policy makers, community authorities, producers, rural dwellers) have increasingly turned to tourism as an alternative means of achieving economic growth and sustainable development through diversifi cation [5].
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    That is why stakeholders in rural areas (policy makers, community authorities, producers, rural dwellers) have increasingly turned to tourism as an alternative means of achieving economic growth and sustainable development through diversifi cation
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    . Contributions of Agritourism to Multifunctional Development of Rural Areas Economic and social consequences of agritourism development, as an alternative form to mass tourism, provide opportunities for its harmonious inclusion into socio-economic life of the community.
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    development in Russia from 2010 to 2013 Indicator20102013 Average size of settlement, people17001650 Proportion of population below active working age, %22.822.4 Proportion of population over active working age, %21.221.0 Average size of household, people2.12.2 Life expectancy, years66.666.8 Share of population with higher and secondary education, %3133 Source: author’s development based on
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    The labour market in rural areas of Russia is ing population in general and an increasing proportion of the population of an active working age. The growth of the population at an active working age is faster than economic expansion rates, which drives unemployment up in rural areas.
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    Currently, it is hard for rural settlements to compete with urban and suburban areas for investments. Income gap between urban and rural territories is permanent over the referred period of 2000-2013– about 150 % (Figure 2). Source:
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    Figure 2 – Dynamics of average per capita disposable income in rural and urban areas of Russia in 2000-2013 and liner trends to 2015, euro per month. Overcoming differences between urban and rural arnological, and social development in general should become the strategic trend of rural policy in Russia.
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