The 14 reference contexts in paper M. Petrović D., Ž. Bjeljac, D. Demirović (2017) “TOURISM IMPACT ATTITUDE SCALE (TIAS) AS A TOOL OF CONTEMPORARY ANALYSIS IN AGRITOURISM” / spz:neicon:stavapk:341

  1. Start
    3143
    Prefix
    In his paper on agritourism, Nilsson (2002) and in Petrović (2013; 2014) defi ne this type of tourism as a basic segment of rural tourism. According to Nilsson, rural tourism is based on rural environment in general, while agritourism is based exclusively on farms and farmers.
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    Clarke (1996)
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    explains that there are certain spatial differences in agritourism. Namely, if the accommodation is not on the farm, then it is agritourism, while farm-stay means that the agricultural environment and its offer are included in the product (e.g. being involved in agricultural work, riding a tractor, processing products, etc.
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  2. Start
    3688
    Prefix
    it is agritourism, while farm-stay means that the agricultural environment and its offer are included in the product (e.g. being involved in agricultural work, riding a tractor, processing products, etc.). The problems in agricultural production have encouraged farmers and the creators of the agricultural policy to search for alternative activities, so agritourism being one of them
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    (Illbery et al., 1998).
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    In 1994, American professors Lankford and Howard (1994) wrote a scientifi c paper with the title «Developing a Tourism Impact Attitude Scale» according to results of their fi eld research in the USA.
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  3. Start
    4496
    Prefix
    Thus, in their work, they designed and presented a unique model for measuring tourism impact on the attitude of local population (most often in agritourism), called TIAS (Tourism Impact Attitude Scale). This scale was created on the basis of several important methodologies suggested by eminent theorists such as Likert (1967),
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    Churchill (1979) and
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    Parasuraman et al. (1988). According to mentioned research, the aim of this study was to examine the attitude of residents in the 17 village settlements in Vojvodina Province (Northern Serbia) which are the most representative (the most ready) in terms of agritourism in Serbia.
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  4. Start
    6855
    Prefix
    The research questionnaire (TIAS) direct polling of the population in the analyzed villages; of 300 distributed poll papers in total, 228 have been answered correctly, which represents the fi nal number of the examinees who participated in the statistical analysis (N=228), i.e. 76 % of the response rate. According to the theorist
    Exact
    Babbie (1986),
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    the response rate among the examinees which is on the level of 70 % and above that share, is considered to be a good indicator of the measurement scale acceptance. Bagozzi (1981) states that the assessments using statistical methods will be good only when the sample comprises the minimum of 51 observed units.
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  5. Start
    7055
    Prefix
    According to the theorist Babbie (1986), the response rate among the examinees which is on the level of 70 % and above that share, is considered to be a good indicator of the measurement scale acceptance.
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    Bagozzi (1981)
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    states that the assessments using statistical methods will be good only when the sample comprises the minimum of 51 observed units. According to these statements, it can be noticed that the sample in all the presented researches is adequate for good statistical assessments (N≥51).
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  6. Start
    9352
    Prefix
    For such a decision an explanation was provided: the taken items showed signifi cance in previous scientifi c researches (Wang et al., 2006; Wang & Pfi ster, 2008), and the other ten items which proved to be inappropriate for the selected target examines were left out. Finally, the items with the lowest values in the original research
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    (Lankford & Howard, 1994)
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    were also left out. According to the presented previous fi ndings, for the needs of the main components analysis in this work, all the 27 original questions were taken. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure value was 0.741 which exceeds the recommended value of 0.60 (Kaiser, 1974).
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  7. Start
    9661
    Prefix
    According to the presented previous fi ndings, for the needs of the main components analysis in this work, all the 27 original questions were taken. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure value was 0.741 which exceeds the recommended value of 0.60
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    (Kaiser, 1974).
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    Also, Bartlett’s test of sphericity has achieved the needed statistical signifi cance (p=0.000) which confi rms the justifi cation of the application of exploratory factor analysis.
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  8. Start
    10724
    Prefix
    This measurement instrument is among the most commonly used indicators of closeness whit items which the scale consists of (Pallant, 2011). In an ideal case, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coeffi cient should be above 0.7
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    (DeVellis, 2003),
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    but the values of this instrument are very sensitive to the number of items on the scale. As Pallant (2011) states, short scales (fewer than 10 items) usually have quite small Cronbach’s coeffi cient (below 0.5) so in that case it is more appropriate to calculate the mean inter-item correlation.
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  9. Start
    11168
    Prefix
    As Pallant (2011) states, short scales (fewer than 10 items) usually have quite small Cronbach’s coeffi cient (below 0.5) so in that case it is more appropriate to calculate the mean inter-item correlation. In this case, the recommended values are from 0.20 to 0.40 as optimal scope of interitem correlation
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    (Briggs & Cheek, 1986).
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    Even though the reliability coeffi cients are below 0.70 are generally considered unacceptable, sometimes the coeffi cients above 0.60 are accepted. According to Lehman et al. (2005), the ideal value of internal consistency value is in the interval from 0.80 to 0.90.
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  10. Start
    12055
    Prefix
    The presented data point to the fact 2. Results and discussion Exploratory factor analysis is used for the analysis of the gathered data about interconnections of the sets of variables.
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    Lankford and Howard (1994),
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    the creators of TIAS scale, got the items grouped in two factors in their results (research in the USA). Factor 1 was titled «concern for local tourism development» (18 items), while Factor 2 interprets «personal and community benefi ts from local tourism development» (nine items).
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  11. Start
    13856
    Prefix
    In all the researched countries, the scale results showed statistical signifi cance and Cronbach’s α coeffi cient – they got the largest one in China (0.90), and the smallest in Jordan (0.71). Theorists
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    Harrill and Potts (2003),
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    in their results on the territory of South Carolina (USA), got three factors: «negative impacts», «economic benefi t» and «cultural benefi t» (p. 239), and excluded eight original items, because of the low coeffi cient values of factor diffi culties (19 items were accepted, which were previously used in the reference Lankford et al., 1995).
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  12. Start
    20009
    Prefix
    that tourism should become the main economic branch in the observed settlement) to 0.689 (for the statement that tourism development should be actively stimulated in the settlement). Concern for local tourism development is the title of this factor, which originates from the title of the same name in the original study of TIAS scale
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    (Lankford & Howard, 1994) and
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    in several other scientifi c references (Wang et al., 2006; Wang & Pfi ster, 2008; Woosnam, 2012). Even though in the original research 18 items were grouped in this factor, in this work all the fi ve items are identical with those in the mentioned research and with relatively similar factor burdens.
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  13. Start
    24407
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    The factor burdens range from 0.418 (the lowest burden) for the statement that tourism reduces possibilities for recreation outdoors, to 0.637 (the highest burden) for the statement that tourism has contributed to the increase of crime rate in the local area. Even though in the original research of TIAS scale
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    (Lankford & Howard, 1994)
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    this factor was not defi ned, in this work Factor 2 has been titled according to the later works by Rollins 81997), Schneider et al. (1997, in the cases of Indonesia and Jordan) and Harrill and Potts (2003).
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  14. Start
    24643
    Prefix
    Even though in the original research of TIAS scale (Lankford & Howard, 1994) this factor was not defi ned, in this work Factor 2 has been titled according to the later works by Rollins 81997), Schneider et al. (1997, in the cases of Indonesia and Jordan) and
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    Harrill and Potts (2003).
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    Even though Rollins got fi ve items within this factor (not including the two which have been obtained in this work: F2a and F2g), all the items are identical with the items grouped in this factor and with similar factor burden (e.g. the greatest difference of 0.25 has been noticed in the case of F2d).
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