The 51 references with contexts in paper A. Kuzovlev N., V. Moroz V., A. Golubev M., S. Polovnikov G., А. Кузовлев Н, В. Мороз В, А. Голубев М, С. Половников Г. (2013) “Ингаляционные антибиотики в лечении тяжелой нозокомиальной пневмонии // Inhaled Antibiotics in the Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia” / spz:neicon:reanimatology:y:2013:i:6:p:61

1
Matkevich V.A., Luzhnikov E.A., Ilyashenko K.K., Petrov S.N., Nikulina V.P., Evdokimova N.V.Vliyanie kishechnogo lavazha na razvitie pnevmonii u bolnykh s ostrymi otravleniyami psikhofarmakologicheskimi sredstvami. [Impact of intestinal lavage on the development of pneumonia in patients with acute poisonings by psychopharmacological agents]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2011; 7 (2): 20—24. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=470
    Prefix
    pneumonia (NP) — is a disease associated with a formation of new focal and infiltrative changes on the chest X-ray 48 hrs after the hospitalization along with the clinical data confirming their infectious nature (fever, purulent sputum or purulent discharge from the tracheobronchial tree, leukocytosis, etc.), excluding infections which were incubated on the admission
    Exact
    [1]
    Suffix
    . Nosocomial pneumonia — is the most prevalent intensive care unit infection. The high prevalence of NP is due to the widespread and irrational use of antibiotics and artificial pulmonary ventilation.

2
Smelaya T.V., Salnikova L.E., Moroz V.V., Golubev A.M., Zarzhetsky Yu.V., Rubanovich A.V. Genetichesky polimorfizm i chastota razvitiya oslozhnenii pri pnevmonii razlichnogo genezisa. [Genetic polymorphism and the rate of development of complications in pneumonia of varying genesis]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2011; 7 (2): 10—16. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1337
    Prefix
    Nosocomial pneumonia significantly deteriorates the course of any disease, increase the duration of intensive care unit stay by 4,3—6,1 days and mortality. The attributable mortality of NP is between 5,8 to 27%
    Exact
    [2—5]
    Suffix
    . The pathogenesis of NP in critically ill patients is based on an imbalance between the lung protective mechanisms and microbial aggression. The lung can be infected either exogenously or endogenously.

3
Khubutiya M.Sh., Shabanov A.K., Chernenkaya T.V., Godkov M.A., Dorfman A.G. Infektsionnye legochnye oslozhneniya v reanimatsii i intensivnoi terapii u postradavshikh s sochetannoi travmoi. [Infectious pulmonary complications in intensive care unit victims with concomitant injury]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya.2011; 7 (4): 24—27. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1337
    Prefix
    Nosocomial pneumonia significantly deteriorates the course of any disease, increase the duration of intensive care unit stay by 4,3—6,1 days and mortality. The attributable mortality of NP is between 5,8 to 27%
    Exact
    [2—5]
    Suffix
    . The pathogenesis of NP in critically ill patients is based on an imbalance between the lung protective mechanisms and microbial aggression. The lung can be infected either exogenously or endogenously.

4
Chuchalin A.G. (red.).Nozokomialnaya pnevmoniya u vzroslykh. Natsionalnye rekomendatsii. [Nosocomial pneumonia in adults. National guidelines]. Moscow: Pfaizer; 2009: 92. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1337
    Prefix
    Nosocomial pneumonia significantly deteriorates the course of any disease, increase the duration of intensive care unit stay by 4,3—6,1 days and mortality. The attributable mortality of NP is between 5,8 to 27%
    Exact
    [2—5]
    Suffix
    . The pathogenesis of NP in critically ill patients is based on an imbalance between the lung protective mechanisms and microbial aggression. The lung can be infected either exogenously or endogenously.

5
Bekaert M., Timsit J.F., Vansteelandt S., Depuydt P., Ve ́sin A., GarrousteOrgeas M., Decruyenaere J., Clec’h C., Azoulay E., Benoit D.; Outcomerea Study Group. Attributable mortality of ventilatorassociated pneumonia: a reappraisal using causal analysis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2011; 184 (10): 1133–1139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.2011050867OC. PMID: 21852541
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1337
    Prefix
    Nosocomial pneumonia significantly deteriorates the course of any disease, increase the duration of intensive care unit stay by 4,3—6,1 days and mortality. The attributable mortality of NP is between 5,8 to 27%
    Exact
    [2—5]
    Suffix
    . The pathogenesis of NP in critically ill patients is based on an imbalance between the lung protective mechanisms and microbial aggression. The lung can be infected either exogenously or endogenously.

6
Karpun N.A., Moroz V.V., Klimova G.M.Profilaktika nozokomialnykh infektsii dykhatelnykh putei. [Prevention of nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2007; 3 (3): 100—104. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3766
    Prefix
    Translocation of opportunistic microbes from the intestines is the other important pathogenetic factor of NP. Exogenous acquisition of NP may occur from the air, medical gases, respiratory devices, microbiota of medical personnel and other patients etc.
    Exact
    [6—8]
    Suffix
    The proved methods of NP prophylaxis in the intensive care unit include the 300 elevation of head, an early removal of nasogastric tubes, a continuous subglottic aspiration and a regular oral cleaning with watery chlorhexidine [8].

7
Shabanov A.K., Khubutiya M.Sh., Bulava G.V., Beloborodova N.V., Kuzovlev A.N., Grebenchikov O.A., Kosolapov D.A., Shpitonkov M.I. Dinamika urovnya prokaltsitonina pri razvitii nozokomialnoi pnevmonii u postradavshikh s tyazheloi sochetannoi travmoi v otdelenii reanimatologii. [Time course of changes in the level of procalcitonin in the development of nosocomial pneumonia in victims with severe concomitant injury in an intensive care unit]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2013; 9 (5): 11—18. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3766
    Prefix
    Translocation of opportunistic microbes from the intestines is the other important pathogenetic factor of NP. Exogenous acquisition of NP may occur from the air, medical gases, respiratory devices, microbiota of medical personnel and other patients etc.
    Exact
    [6—8]
    Suffix
    The proved methods of NP prophylaxis in the intensive care unit include the 300 elevation of head, an early removal of nasogastric tubes, a continuous subglottic aspiration and a regular oral cleaning with watery chlorhexidine [8].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=6177
    Prefix
    Increasing daily doses of antibiotics is related to a risk of selection of multiresistant strains, side-effects and superinfection. Theferore inhaled antibiotics (IA) as an adjunct to systemic ones present a good treatment modality
    Exact
    [7, 9, 14—15]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled antibiotics The inhaled root has long been used to administer various medicines: antibiotics, antifungals, antimycobacterials, immune supressors, insulin, vaccines, nitrous oxide, interferones, furosemide, in genotherapy of some diseases.

8
Moroz V.V., Smelaya T.V., Golubev A.M., Salnikova L.E.Genetika i meditsina kriticheskikh sostoyanii: ot teorii k praktike. [Genetics and medicine of critical conditions: from theory to practice]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2012; 8 (4): 5—12. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3766
    Prefix
    Translocation of opportunistic microbes from the intestines is the other important pathogenetic factor of NP. Exogenous acquisition of NP may occur from the air, medical gases, respiratory devices, microbiota of medical personnel and other patients etc.
    Exact
    [6—8]
    Suffix
    The proved methods of NP prophylaxis in the intensive care unit include the 300 elevation of head, an early removal of nasogastric tubes, a continuous subglottic aspiration and a regular oral cleaning with watery chlorhexidine [8].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4020
    Prefix
    acquisition of NP may occur from the air, medical gases, respiratory devices, microbiota of medical personnel and other patients etc. [6—8] The proved methods of NP prophylaxis in the intensive care unit include the 300 elevation of head, an early removal of nasogastric tubes, a continuous subglottic aspiration and a regular oral cleaning with watery chlorhexidine
    Exact
    [8]
    Suffix
    . The key etiological agents of NP are cassociations of multiresistant gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacterspp., Klebsiella pneumonia) and grampositive (Staphylococcus aureus) strains.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=5460
    Prefix
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Burkholderiaspp., Stenotrophomonasspp., have a natural property to form biolayers, which protect them against the immune system and antibiotics. There are currently no perspectives of producing new classes of antibiotics
    Exact
    [8—9]
    Suffix
    . In view of the abovementioned special regimens of antibiotic therapy are recommended: increase of doses, continuous infusions, etc. Randomized controlled trial shows that continuous infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems decreases the mortality in NP.

9
Golubev A.M., Smelaya T.V., Moroz V.V., Popov A.A., Tolbatov A.A., Medunetskaya S.V. Vnebolnichnaya i nozokomialnaya pnevmoniya: kliniko-morfologicheskie osobennosti. [Community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia: Clinical and morphological features]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2010; 6 (3): 5—14. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 4
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4689
    Prefix
    Associations of 3—4 multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70—80%), Acinetobacter baumanii/calcoaceticus (70—90%), Klebsilella pneumonia (30—40%), Proteus mirabilis (20—25%) were detected in our investigation; gram-positive strains were detected in 10—15% of patients (Staphylococcus aureusMRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium)
    Exact
    [9—13]
    Suffix
    . Rational antibiotic therapy is the background of NP treatment. Intravenous carbapenems, cephalosporins III— IV generations, protected anti-pseudomonal penicillines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and their combinations are recommended for NP treatment [9].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4970
    Prefix
    Intravenous carbapenems, cephalosporins III— IV generations, protected anti-pseudomonal penicillines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and their combinations are recommended for NP treatment
    Exact
    [9]
    Suffix
    . Early start of antibiotics improves outcomes, but the mortality and microbial resistance still remain extremely high. The problem of microbial resistance to the majority of antibiotics is of great significance.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=5460
    Prefix
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Burkholderiaspp., Stenotrophomonasspp., have a natural property to form biolayers, which protect them against the immune system and antibiotics. There are currently no perspectives of producing new classes of antibiotics
    Exact
    [8—9]
    Suffix
    . In view of the abovementioned special regimens of antibiotic therapy are recommended: increase of doses, continuous infusions, etc. Randomized controlled trial shows that continuous infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems decreases the mortality in NP.

  4. In-text reference with the coordinate start=6177
    Prefix
    Increasing daily doses of antibiotics is related to a risk of selection of multiresistant strains, side-effects and superinfection. Theferore inhaled antibiotics (IA) as an adjunct to systemic ones present a good treatment modality
    Exact
    [7, 9, 14—15]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled antibiotics The inhaled root has long been used to administer various medicines: antibiotics, antifungals, antimycobacterials, immune supressors, insulin, vaccines, nitrous oxide, interferones, furosemide, in genotherapy of some diseases.

10
Chuchalin A.G. (red.).Respiratornaya meditsina. Rukovodstvo. [Respiratory medicine. A manual]. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media; 2007: 757. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4689
    Prefix
    Associations of 3—4 multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70—80%), Acinetobacter baumanii/calcoaceticus (70—90%), Klebsilella pneumonia (30—40%), Proteus mirabilis (20—25%) were detected in our investigation; gram-positive strains were detected in 10—15% of patients (Staphylococcus aureusMRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium)
    Exact
    [9—13]
    Suffix
    . Rational antibiotic therapy is the background of NP treatment. Intravenous carbapenems, cephalosporins III— IV generations, protected anti-pseudomonal penicillines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and their combinations are recommended for NP treatment [9].

11
Valencia M., Torres A.Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Curr. Opin. Crit. Care. 2009; 15 (1): 30—35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC. 0b013e3283220e78. PMID: 19186407
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4689
    Prefix
    Associations of 3—4 multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70—80%), Acinetobacter baumanii/calcoaceticus (70—90%), Klebsilella pneumonia (30—40%), Proteus mirabilis (20—25%) were detected in our investigation; gram-positive strains were detected in 10—15% of patients (Staphylococcus aureusMRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium)
    Exact
    [9—13]
    Suffix
    . Rational antibiotic therapy is the background of NP treatment. Intravenous carbapenems, cephalosporins III— IV generations, protected anti-pseudomonal penicillines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and their combinations are recommended for NP treatment [9].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13312
    Prefix
    The treatment with IT made it possible to wean 30% of patients on the day 5,2±1,7. Hearing loss and tinnitus was detected only in 2 patients in our study. There were no cases of bronchospasm or kidney dysfunction in our study, which is in accordance with the other trials
    Exact
    [11—13]
    Suffix
    . Only special preparations for inhalation and modern nebulizers must be used for an effective treatment with IA. The preparation for inhalation use should not contain some conservatives and should not be hyperosmolar, should be pH neutral and contain chlorides to prevent bronchospasm and cough [22].

12
Gilbert D.N., Moellering R.C., Eliopoulos G.M., Chambers H.F., Saag M.S. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2012. Antimicrobial Therapy Inc.; 2012: 232.
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4689
    Prefix
    Associations of 3—4 multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70—80%), Acinetobacter baumanii/calcoaceticus (70—90%), Klebsilella pneumonia (30—40%), Proteus mirabilis (20—25%) were detected in our investigation; gram-positive strains were detected in 10—15% of patients (Staphylococcus aureusMRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium)
    Exact
    [9—13]
    Suffix
    . Rational antibiotic therapy is the background of NP treatment. Intravenous carbapenems, cephalosporins III— IV generations, protected anti-pseudomonal penicillines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and their combinations are recommended for NP treatment [9].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13312
    Prefix
    The treatment with IT made it possible to wean 30% of patients on the day 5,2±1,7. Hearing loss and tinnitus was detected only in 2 patients in our study. There were no cases of bronchospasm or kidney dysfunction in our study, which is in accordance with the other trials
    Exact
    [11—13]
    Suffix
    . Only special preparations for inhalation and modern nebulizers must be used for an effective treatment with IA. The preparation for inhalation use should not contain some conservatives and should not be hyperosmolar, should be pH neutral and contain chlorides to prevent bronchospasm and cough [22].

13
Koulenti D., Lisboa T., Brun-Buisson C., Krueger W., Macor A., SoleViolan J., Diaz E., Topeli A., DeWaele J., Carneiro A., Martin-Loeches I., Armaganidis A., Rello J.; EU-VAP/CAP Study Group.Spectrum of practice in the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in European intensive care units. Crit. Care Med.2009; 37 (8): 2360—2368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM. 0b013e3181a037ac.PMID: 19531951
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=4689
    Prefix
    Associations of 3—4 multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70—80%), Acinetobacter baumanii/calcoaceticus (70—90%), Klebsilella pneumonia (30—40%), Proteus mirabilis (20—25%) were detected in our investigation; gram-positive strains were detected in 10—15% of patients (Staphylococcus aureusMRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium)
    Exact
    [9—13]
    Suffix
    . Rational antibiotic therapy is the background of NP treatment. Intravenous carbapenems, cephalosporins III— IV generations, protected anti-pseudomonal penicillines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and their combinations are recommended for NP treatment [9].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13312
    Prefix
    The treatment with IT made it possible to wean 30% of patients on the day 5,2±1,7. Hearing loss and tinnitus was detected only in 2 patients in our study. There were no cases of bronchospasm or kidney dysfunction in our study, which is in accordance with the other trials
    Exact
    [11—13]
    Suffix
    . Only special preparations for inhalation and modern nebulizers must be used for an effective treatment with IA. The preparation for inhalation use should not contain some conservatives and should not be hyperosmolar, should be pH neutral and contain chlorides to prevent bronchospasm and cough [22].

14
Moroz V.V., Kuzovlev A.N., Polovnikov S.G., Stets V.V., Varvarin V.V. Ingalyatsionnyi tobtamitsin v lechenii tyazhelykh nozokomialnykh pnevmonii. [Inhaled tobramycin in the treatment of severe nosocomial pneumonias]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2012; 8 (2): 5—10. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=6177
    Prefix
    Increasing daily doses of antibiotics is related to a risk of selection of multiresistant strains, side-effects and superinfection. Theferore inhaled antibiotics (IA) as an adjunct to systemic ones present a good treatment modality
    Exact
    [7, 9, 14—15]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled antibiotics The inhaled root has long been used to administer various medicines: antibiotics, antifungals, antimycobacterials, immune supressors, insulin, vaccines, nitrous oxide, interferones, furosemide, in genotherapy of some diseases.

15
Polovnikov S.G., Kuzovlev A.N., Ilyichev A.N.Opyt ispolzovaniya ingalyatsionnogo tobramitsina v lechenii tyazheloi nozokomialnoi pnevmonii. [Experience with inhaled tobramycin in the treatment of severe nosocomial pneumonia]. Pulmonologiya.2011; 2: 109—112. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=6177
    Prefix
    Increasing daily doses of antibiotics is related to a risk of selection of multiresistant strains, side-effects and superinfection. Theferore inhaled antibiotics (IA) as an adjunct to systemic ones present a good treatment modality
    Exact
    [7, 9, 14—15]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled antibiotics The inhaled root has long been used to administer various medicines: antibiotics, antifungals, antimycobacterials, immune supressors, insulin, vaccines, nitrous oxide, interferones, furosemide, in genotherapy of some diseases.

16
Kuzovlev A., Polovnikov S., Stec V., Varvarin V.Efficacy of inhaled tobramycin in severe nosocomial pneumonia. Crit. Care.2012; 16 (Suppl 1): P71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc10678.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=6763
    Prefix
    Ehrmann S. et al. showed that 99% of German doctors use some inhaled preparations, 43% of them use nebulizers (55% — jet, 44% — ultrasound, 14% — mesh nebulizers). Eighty percent of them use inhaled colistin in their daily practice, and 30% use inhaled antibiotics minimum 2 times a year
    Exact
    [16]
    Suffix
    . AntibioticArea of implementationDosage AMINOGLYCOSIDES AmikacinExacerbation of bronchoectatic disease, mycobacterial infections.500 mg BID GentamycinExacerbation of bronchoectatic disease.80 mg BID TobramycinCystic fibrosis — prophylaxis and treatment of exacerbations.300 mg BID Treatment of nosocomial pneumonia.

17
Tamma P.D., Putcha N., Suh Y.D., Van Arendonk K.J., Rinke M.L.Does prolonged beta-lactam infusions improve clinical outcomes compared to intermittent infusions? A metaanalysis and systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. BMC Infect. Dis.2011; 11: 181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-11-181. PMID: 21696619
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8725
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that in this case the local sputum concentration of antibiotics is significantly higher that after the intravenous administration, which is important when treating multiresistant strains and preventing the formation of resistance. Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers
    Exact
    [17—22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32].

18
Falagas M.E., Tansarli G.S., Ikawa K., Vardakas K.Z.Clinical outcomes with extended or continuous versus short-term intravenous infusion of carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Clin. Infect. Dis.2013; 56 (2): 272–282. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1093/cid/cis857. PMID: 23074314
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8725
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that in this case the local sputum concentration of antibiotics is significantly higher that after the intravenous administration, which is important when treating multiresistant strains and preventing the formation of resistance. Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers
    Exact
    [17—22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32].

19
Ehrmann S., Roche-Campo F., Sferrazza Papa G.F., Isabey D., Brochard L., Apiou-Sbirlea G.; REVA Research Network.Aerosol therapy during mechanical ventilation: an international survey. Intensive Care Med.
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8725
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that in this case the local sputum concentration of antibiotics is significantly higher that after the intravenous administration, which is important when treating multiresistant strains and preventing the formation of resistance. Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers
    Exact
    [17—22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14381
    Prefix
    Inhaled antibiotics are not used as a monotherapy without the systemic antibiotics, because their absorbtion into the blood is low (2—4%) and not sufficient to treat the concomitant extrapulmonary infections and moreover insufficient to reach the alveoli
    Exact
    [19—22, 50]
    Suffix
    . But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis [22, 50—51].

20
3; 39 (6): 1048—1056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-0132872-5. PMID: 23525741 20.Palmer L.B.Aerosolized antibiotics in the intensive care unit. Clin. Chest Med.2011; 32 (3): 559—574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm. 2011.05.012. PMID: 21867823
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8725
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that in this case the local sputum concentration of antibiotics is significantly higher that after the intravenous administration, which is important when treating multiresistant strains and preventing the formation of resistance. Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers
    Exact
    [17—22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9824
    Prefix
    It is inexpedient to use inhaled beta-lactames, because they are concentration-dependant antibiotics, and therefore multiple inhalations will be required (e.g. every 3 hrs for ceftazidime). Carbapenems when inhaled induce allergic reaction: inhaled doripenem study was stopped at stage one due to this reason
    Exact
    [20—21, 47]
    Suffix
    . Table deals with the currently used IA [22]. The majority of IA are used to treat acute and chronic pseudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis and bronchoectatic disease. Chronic preudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis increases mortality.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14381
    Prefix
    Inhaled antibiotics are not used as a monotherapy without the systemic antibiotics, because their absorbtion into the blood is low (2—4%) and not sufficient to treat the concomitant extrapulmonary infections and moreover insufficient to reach the alveoli
    Exact
    [19—22, 50]
    Suffix
    . But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis [22, 50—51].

21
Tolker-Nielsen T., Høiby N.Extracellular DNA and F-actin as targets in antibiofilm cystic fibrosis therapy. Future Microbiol.2009; 4 (6): 645—647. http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb.09.38. PMID: 19659420
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8725
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that in this case the local sputum concentration of antibiotics is significantly higher that after the intravenous administration, which is important when treating multiresistant strains and preventing the formation of resistance. Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers
    Exact
    [17—22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9824
    Prefix
    It is inexpedient to use inhaled beta-lactames, because they are concentration-dependant antibiotics, and therefore multiple inhalations will be required (e.g. every 3 hrs for ceftazidime). Carbapenems when inhaled induce allergic reaction: inhaled doripenem study was stopped at stage one due to this reason
    Exact
    [20—21, 47]
    Suffix
    . Table deals with the currently used IA [22]. The majority of IA are used to treat acute and chronic pseudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis and bronchoectatic disease. Chronic preudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis increases mortality.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14381
    Prefix
    Inhaled antibiotics are not used as a monotherapy without the systemic antibiotics, because their absorbtion into the blood is low (2—4%) and not sufficient to treat the concomitant extrapulmonary infections and moreover insufficient to reach the alveoli
    Exact
    [19—22, 50]
    Suffix
    . But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis [22, 50—51].

22
Dhand R.The role of aerosolized antimicrobials in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir. Care.2007; 52 (7): 866—884. PMID: 17594731
Total in-text references: 7
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8030
    Prefix
    B Prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis in oncohematology.12,5 mg liposomal2 times/week for 2 days OTHERS ColistinCystic fibrosis — prophylaxis and treatment of exacerbations.1—2 million IU BID Treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Continuous therapy of bronchoectatic disease PentamidinProphylaxis of Pneumocystis spp. pneumonia in HIV patients300 mg/month Inhaled antibiotics in modern medicine
    Exact
    [22]
    Suffix
    www.niiorramn.ru Inhaled colistin, tobramycin, cephalosporins, amphotericin B, pentamydin have been used for prophylaxis and treatment of various infections for more than 50 years now. Modern nebulizers help to administer nearly 50—70% of IA dose directly into the infection focus.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8725
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that in this case the local sputum concentration of antibiotics is significantly higher that after the intravenous administration, which is important when treating multiresistant strains and preventing the formation of resistance. Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers
    Exact
    [17—22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32].

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9875
    Prefix
    It is inexpedient to use inhaled beta-lactames, because they are concentration-dependant antibiotics, and therefore multiple inhalations will be required (e.g. every 3 hrs for ceftazidime). Carbapenems when inhaled induce allergic reaction: inhaled doripenem study was stopped at stage one due to this reason [20—21, 47]. Table deals with the currently used IA
    Exact
    [22]
    Suffix
    . The majority of IA are used to treat acute and chronic pseudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis and bronchoectatic disease. Chronic preudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis increases mortality.

  4. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13619
    Prefix
    Only special preparations for inhalation and modern nebulizers must be used for an effective treatment with IA. The preparation for inhalation use should not contain some conservatives and should not be hyperosmolar, should be pH neutral and contain chlorides to prevent bronchospasm and cough
    Exact
    [22]
    Suffix
    . Mesh nebulizers are most suitable for IA administration. This type of nebulizers forms 2.1 μm particles and provides a delivery of 5—70% of drug dose into the lungs; temperature of preparation remains constant during the aerosol formation; the air flow minimally affects the ventilation parameters; constant humidification of air can be continued.

  5. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14108
    Prefix
    forms 2.1 μm particles and provides a delivery of 5—70% of drug dose into the lungs; temperature of preparation remains constant during the aerosol formation; the air flow minimally affects the ventilation parameters; constant humidification of air can be continued. Instillation of antibiotics through the intubation or tracheostomic tube is ineffective and must never be used
    Exact
    [22]
    Suffix
    . Inhaled antibiotics are not used as a monotherapy without the systemic antibiotics, because their absorbtion into the blood is low (2—4%) and not sufficient to treat the concomitant extrapulmonary infections and moreover insufficient to reach the alveoli [19—22, 50].

  6. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14381
    Prefix
    Inhaled antibiotics are not used as a monotherapy without the systemic antibiotics, because their absorbtion into the blood is low (2—4%) and not sufficient to treat the concomitant extrapulmonary infections and moreover insufficient to reach the alveoli
    Exact
    [19—22, 50]
    Suffix
    . But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis [22, 50—51].

  7. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14595
    Prefix
    But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis
    Exact
    [22, 50—51]
    Suffix
    . Use of IA is related to some problems. The penetration of IA into the obstructed airways is deteriorated. A possible inactivation of IA in sputum should be taken into account. This effect is mostly profound in aminoglycosides.

23
Ioannidou E., Siempos I., Falagas M.Administration of antimicrobials via the respiratory tract for the treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia: a meta-analysis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother.2007; 60 (6): 1216—1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkm385. PMID: 17934205
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11871
    Prefix
    The same group of authors proved later the same efficacy of inhaled colistin and combination of intravenous beta-lactames and aminoglycosides in NP patients caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii [49]. Korbila I. et al. showed more rapid NP resolution in combination of inhaled and intravenous forms of colistin
    Exact
    [23]
    Suffix
    . Arnold H. et al. in the retrospective trial showed a higher survival in NP patients treated with IT [31]. All the abovementioned trials showed a low threshold of resistance emergence and low incidence of side effects in IA use.

24
Hudson R., Olson Blair B.Inhaled antibiotics for Gram-negative respiratory infections. Future Med. Chem.2011; 3 (13): 1663—1677. http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/fmc.11.114. PMID: 21942255
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

25
Le J., Ashley E.D., Neuhauser M.M., Brown J., Gentry C., Klepser M.E., Marr A.M., Schiller D., Schwiesow J.N., Tice S., VandenBussche H.L., Wood G.C.; Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Aerosolized Antimicrobials Task Force. Consensus summary of aerosolized antimicrobial agents: application of guideline criteria. Insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Pharmacotherapy.2010; 30 (6): 562—584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1592/phco.30.6.562.PMID: 20500046
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

26
Korbila I., Michalopoulos A., Rafailidis P.I., Nikita D., Samonis G., Falagas M.E. Inhaled colistin as adjunctive therapy to intravenous colistin for the treatment of microbiologically documented ventilatorassociated pneumonia: a comparative cohort study. Clin. Microbiol. Infect.2010; 16 (8): 1230—1236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.14690691.2009.03040.x. PMID: 19732088
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

27
Michalopoulos A., Fotakis D., Virtzili S., Vletsas C., Raftopoulou S., Mastora Z., Falagas M.E.Aerosolized colistin as adjunctive treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a prospective study. Respir. Med.2008; 102 (3): 407—412. A 25-fold increase over the minimal inhibitory concentration is required to overcome this inactivation. Changes of physico-chemical properties of IA during the aerosol formation due to heating, cooling, vibration, etc. (more profound in jet nebulizers), local and systemic toxic effects, bronchoconstrictive effects of conservatives should be noted. The bronchospasm is mostly induced by the inhaled colistin. Only special preparations for inhalation must be used to prev
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

28
Michalopoulos A., Papadakis E.Inhaled anti-infective agents: emphasis on colistin. Infection. 2010; 38 (2): 81—88. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s15010-009-9148-6. PMID: 20191398
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

29
Avdeyev S.N., Karchevskaya N.A., Chuchalin A.G.Opyt ispolzovaniya ingalyatsionnogo tobramitsina pri nozokomialnoi pnevmonii. [Experience with inhaled tobramycin in nosocomial pneumonia]. Lechebnoe Delo.2009; 2: 80—88. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9062
    Prefix
    Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time)
    Exact
    [29—32]
    Suffix
    . Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

30
Amelina E.L., Chuchalin A.G.Ingalyatsionnyi tobramitsin v lechenii sinegnoinoi infektsii u bolnykh mukovistsidozom. [Inhaled tobramycin in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis]. Pulmonologiya.2009; 5: 120—126. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9062
    Prefix
    Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time)
    Exact
    [29—32]
    Suffix
    . Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

31
Belousov Yu.B., Zyryanov S.K., Sokolov A.V.Effektivnost i bezopasnost rastvora tobramitsina dlya ingalyatsii v lechenii sinegnoinoi infektsii pri mukovistsidoze. [Efficacy and safety of tobramycin solution for inhalations in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis]. Pulmonologiya.2010; 2: 114—119. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9062
    Prefix
    Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time)
    Exact
    [29—32]
    Suffix
    . Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11982
    Prefix
    Korbila I. et al. showed more rapid NP resolution in combination of inhaled and intravenous forms of colistin [23]. Arnold H. et al. in the retrospective trial showed a higher survival in NP patients treated with IT
    Exact
    [31]
    Suffix
    . All the abovementioned trials showed a low threshold of resistance emergence and low incidence of side effects in IA use. Our data on the inhaled tobramycin use in septic patients with NP proved its efficacy and safety: decrease of systemic inflammation and acute respiratory insufficiency signs 2,3±1,2 after the treatment onset.

32
Kapranov N.I., Kashirskaya N.Yu., Rodionovich A.M., Amelina E.L., Chuchalin A.G., Gembitskaya T.E., Chermensky A.G., Orlov A.V., Varoli G., Monici Preti P.Klinicheskoe znachenie spetsialnoi aerozolnoi formy tobramitsina v lechenii khronicheskogo bronkholegochnogo protsessa u bolnykh mukovistsidozom. [Clinical value of special tobramycin aerosol formulation in the treatment of a bronchopulmonary process in patients with cystic fibrosis]. Pulmonologiya. 2008; 3: 20—27. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9062
    Prefix
    Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine [11—13, 23—39]. Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time)
    Exact
    [29—32]
    Suffix
    . Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

33
Chermensky A.G., Gembitskaya T.E.Ispolzovanie ingalyatsionnogo tobramitsina u bolnykh mukovistsidozom. [Use of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis]. Terapevtichesky Arkhiv.2010; 82 (8): 76—78. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

34
Arnold H., Sawyer A., Kollef M.Use of Adjunctive aerosolized antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Acinetobacter baumanniiventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir. Care. 2012; 57 (8): 1226—1233. http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.01556. PMID: 22349038
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

35
Chuchalin A., Amelina E., Bianco F.Tobramycin for inhalation in cystic fibrosis: beyond respiratory improvements. Pulm. Pharmacol. Ther. 2009; 22 (6): 526—532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2009.06.001. PMID: 19616111
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

36
Drobnic M.E., SuñéP., Montoro J.B., Ferrer A., Orriols R.Inhaled tobramycin in non-cystic fibrosis patients with bronchiectasis and chronic bronchial infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ann. Pharmacother.2005; 39 (1): 39—44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1345/aph. 1E099. PMID: 15562142
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

37
Hallal A., Cohn S.M., Namias N., Habib F., Baracco G., Manning R.J., Crookes B., Schulman C.I.Aerosolized tobramycin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a pilot study. Surg. Infect. (Larchmt). 2007; 8 (1): 73—82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2006.051. PMID: 17381399
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

38
Greally P., Whitaker P., Peckham D.Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosainfection in patients with cystic fibrosis. Curr. Med. Res. Opin.2012; 28 (6): 1059—1067. http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2012.674500. PMID: 22401602
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

39
Høiby N.Recent advances in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. BMC Med.2011; 9: 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-9-32. PMID: 21463524
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8866
    Prefix
    Inhaled administration of antibiotics is related to less systemic toxicity and a profound action on biolayers [17—22]. Inhaled colistin and inhaled aminoglycosides are the most frequently used IA in pulmonology and intensive care medicine
    Exact
    [11—13, 23—39]
    Suffix
    . Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45

40
Ghannam D.E., Rodriguez G.H., Raad I.I., Safdar A.Inhaled aminoglycosides in cancer patients with ventilator-associated Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia: safety and feasibility in the era of escalating drug resistance. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.2009; 28 (3): 253—259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-008-0620-5. PMID: 18752007
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9101
    Prefix
    Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones
    Exact
    [40]
    Suffix
    , cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used. Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation [46].

41
Ratjen F., Munck A., Kho P., Angyalosi G.; ELITE Study Group. Treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: the ELITE trial. Thorax.2010; 65 (4): 286—291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2009.121657. PMID: 19996339
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9123
    Prefix
    Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines
    Exact
    [41]
    Suffix
    , liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used. Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation [46].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11500
    Prefix
    It is noteworthy that IA in this study were used as a monotherapy (ceftazidime 15 mg/kg every 3 hrs., amikacin 25 mg/kg/day). Several cases of exhalation filter obstruction were detected
    Exact
    [41]
    Suffix
    . The same group of authors proved later the same efficacy of inhaled colistin and combination of intravenous beta-lactames and aminoglycosides in NP patients caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii [49].

42
Ramsey B.W., Pepe M.S., Quan J.M., Otto K.L., Montgomery A.B., Williams-Warren J., Vasiljev K.M., Borowitz D., Bowman C.M., Marshall B.C., Marshall S., Smith A.L.Intermittent administration of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. N. Engl. J. Med.1999; 340 (1): 23—30. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1056/NEJM199901073400104. PMID: 9878641
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9158
    Prefix
    Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides
    Exact
    [42]
    Suffix
    ; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used. Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation [46].

43
Geller D.E., Flume P.A., Staab D., Fischer R., Loutit J.S., Conrad D.J.; Mpex 204 Study Group.Levofloxacin inhalation solution (MP—376) in patients with cystic fibrosis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2011; 183 (11): 1510—1516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164 /rccm.201008-1293OC. PMID: 21471106
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9176
    Prefix
    Aminoglycosides are the most suitable antibiotics for inhalation because they are bactericidial and concentration-dependant (high concentration for a short period of time) [29—32]. Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam
    Exact
    [43]
    Suffix
    , combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin) [44—45] are used. Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation [46].

44
Lu Q., Yang J., Liu Z., Gutierrez C., Aymard G., Rouby J.J.; Nebulized Antibiotics Study Group.Nebulized ceftazidime and amikacin in ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2011; 184 (1): 106—115. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1164/rccm.201011-1894OC. PMID: 21474643
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9271
    Prefix
    Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin)
    Exact
    [44—45]
    Suffix
    are used. Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation [46].

45
Okusanya O.O., Bhavnani S.M., Hammel J., Minic P., Dupont L.J., Forrest A., Mulder G.J., Mackinson C., Ambrose P.G., Gupta R.Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of liposomal amikacin for inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic pseudomonal infection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.2009; 53 (9): 3847—3854. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1128/AAC.00872-08. PMID: 19451281
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9271
    Prefix
    Also inhaled fluoroquinolones [40], cephalosporines [41], liposomal aminoglycosides [42]; aztreonam [43], combinations (fosfomycin/tobramycin, colitin/tobramycin, ciprofloxacin/colistin)
    Exact
    [44—45]
    Suffix
    are used. Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation [46].

46
Wainwright C.E., Quittner A.L., Geller D.E., Nakamura C., Wooldridge J.L., Gibson R.L., Lewis S., Montgomery A.B.Aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI) in patients with cystic fibrosis, mild lung impairment, and P.aeruginosa. J. Cyst. Fibros.2011; 10 (4): 234—242. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jcf.2011.02.007. PMID: 21441078
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9496
    Prefix
    Inhaled fosfomycin is active against both gram-negatives and grampositives, but it is strongly recommended to combine it with other antibiotics to prevent a rapid resistance formation
    Exact
    [46]
    Suffix
    . It is inexpedient to use inhaled beta-lactames, because they are concentration-dependant antibiotics, and therefore multiple inhalations will be required (e.g. every 3 hrs for ceftazidime).

47
Trapnell B.C., McColley S.A., Kissner D.G., Rolfe M.W., Rosen J.M., McKevitt M., Moorehead L., Montgomery A.B., Geller D.E.; Phase 2FTI Study Group.Fosfomycin/tobramycin for inhalation (FTI): efficacy results of a phase 2 placebo-controlled trial in patients with cystic fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2012; 185 (2): 171—178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201105-0924OC. PMID: 22095545
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=9824
    Prefix
    It is inexpedient to use inhaled beta-lactames, because they are concentration-dependant antibiotics, and therefore multiple inhalations will be required (e.g. every 3 hrs for ceftazidime). Carbapenems when inhaled induce allergic reaction: inhaled doripenem study was stopped at stage one due to this reason
    Exact
    [20—21, 47]
    Suffix
    . Table deals with the currently used IA [22]. The majority of IA are used to treat acute and chronic pseudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis and bronchoectatic disease. Chronic preudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis increases mortality.

48
Herrmann G., Yang L., Wu H., Song Z., Wang H., Høiby N., Ulrich M., Molin S., Riethmüller J., Döring G.Colistin-tobramycin combinations are superior to monotherapy concerning the killing of biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Infect Dis.2010; 202 (10): 1585—1592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/656788. PMID: 20942647
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10794
    Prefix
    But the recent meta-analysis shows that there are currently no evident data to support IA use in cystic fibrosis. Moreover, the increase of the prevalence of colistin and aminoglycoside resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaand gram-positive microbes is detected in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [27—30, 32—33, 36, 48]
    Suffix
    . There were no randomized multicenter trials of IA use in NP. Several small trials proved that IA in combination with systemic antibiotics decrease the symptoms of NP, facilitate weaning from ventilator, decrease the sputum microbes titer.

49
MacLeod D.L., Barker L.M., Sutherland J.L., Moss S.C., Gurgel J.L., Kenney T.F., Burns J.L., Baker W.R.Antibacterial activities of a fosfomycin/tobramycin combination: a novel inhaled antibiotic for bronchiectasis.J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2009; 64 (4): 829–836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkp282. PMID: 19679597
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11747
    Prefix
    The same group of authors proved later the same efficacy of inhaled colistin and combination of intravenous beta-lactames and aminoglycosides in NP patients caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii
    Exact
    [49]
    Suffix
    . Korbila I. et al. showed more rapid NP resolution in combination of inhaled and intravenous forms of colistin [23]. Arnold H. et al. in the retrospective trial showed a higher survival in NP patients treated with IT [31].

50
Hilas O., Ezzo D.C., Jodlowski T.Z.Doripenem (doribax), a new carbapenem antibacterial agent. Pharm. Ther.2008; 33 (3): 134–180. PMID: 19750153
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14381
    Prefix
    Inhaled antibiotics are not used as a monotherapy without the systemic antibiotics, because their absorbtion into the blood is low (2—4%) and not sufficient to treat the concomitant extrapulmonary infections and moreover insufficient to reach the alveoli
    Exact
    [19—22, 50]
    Suffix
    . But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis [22, 50—51].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14595
    Prefix
    But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis
    Exact
    [22, 50—51]
    Suffix
    . Use of IA is related to some problems. The penetration of IA into the obstructed airways is deteriorated. A possible inactivation of IA in sputum should be taken into account. This effect is mostly profound in aminoglycosides.

51
Ryan G., Jahnke N., Remmington T.Inhaled antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2012; 12: CD008319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008319.pub2. PMID: 23235659
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14595
    Prefix
    But we have a clinical experience of an effective monotherapy with IT in a patient with severe allergic reaction to systemic antibiotics. Currently it is not recommended to use IA for the NP prophylaxis
    Exact
    [22, 50—51]
    Suffix
    . Use of IA is related to some problems. The penetration of IA into the obstructed airways is deteriorated. A possible inactivation of IA in sputum should be taken into account. This effect is mostly profound in aminoglycosides.