The 18 references with contexts in paper S. Khoroshilov E., A. Nikulin V., A. Marukhov V., С. Хорошилов Е., А. Никулин В., А. Марухов В. (2013) “Применение плазмафереза в ферментативной фазе тяжелого острого панкреатита // Use of Plasmapheresis in the Enzymatic Phase of Severe Acute Pancreatitis” / spz:neicon:reanimatology:y:2013:i:6:p:53

1
Reshetnikov E.A.Differentsialnoe lechenie ostrogo pankreatita. [Differential treatment for acute pancreatitis]. Khirurgiya. Zhurnal Imeni N.I.Pirogova.2005; 8: 69—72. [In Russ.]
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    aspects of the development and creation of pathogenetic methods for complex therapy, the treatment of acute pancreatitis and its complications is still a pressing problem in modern emergency medicine. Accounting for 12.5% of all urgent pathologies, AP (acute pancreatitis) ranks third among all acute surgical illnesses of the abdominal cavity
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    . The most severe form of the disease — destructive pancreatitis — can be found in 15—20% of the cases; mortality due to this disease reaches 21%. It should be noted that about 70% of AP patients are of working age (from 30 to 50 years), while the incapacity to work appears in 73.5% of the patients with acute destructive pancreatitis [2].

2
Savelyev V.S., Filimonov M.I., Burnevich S.Z. Pankreonekrozy. [Pancreonecroses]. Moscow: Meditsinskoe Informatsionnoe Agentstvo; 2008: 82. [In Russ.]
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    The most severe form of the disease — destructive pancreatitis — can be found in 15—20% of the cases; mortality due to this disease reaches 21%. It should be noted that about 70% of AP patients are of working age (from 30 to 50 years), while the incapacity to work appears in 73.5% of the patients with acute destructive pancreatitis
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    [2]
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    . The question of treating AP is not only medical, but also one with a high social and economic significance. The main component of the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is endogenous intoxication (EI), which is formed in the early stages of the disease, determines the severity of pathological changes in the patient's body, and causes high mortality [3].

3
Filin V.I., Kostyuchenko A.L.Neotlozhnaya pankreatologiya. 2-e izdanie. [Emergency pancreatology. 2nded.] Sankt-Peterburg: Piter; 1999: 72—73. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1260
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    The main component of the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is endogenous intoxication (EI), which is formed in the early stages of the disease, determines the severity of pathological changes in the patient's body, and causes high mortality
    Exact
    [3]
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    . One of the earliest and most dangerous systemic dysfunctions in the development of AP is ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), which involves diffuse pulmonary capillary endothelial damage, accompanied by disorders of the aero-haematic barrier [4].

4
Golubev A.M., Moroz V.V., Sundukov D.V.Patogenez ostrogo respiratornogo distress-sindroma. [Pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2012; 8 (4): 13—21. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1527
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    One of the earliest and most dangerous systemic dysfunctions in the development of AP is ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), which involves diffuse pulmonary capillary endothelial damage, accompanied by disorders of the aero-haematic barrier
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    [4]
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    . Secondary lung injury complicates AP in 30—35% of the patients, and, according to various estimates, the mortality rate caused by AP in the development of ARDS reaches 50—70% [5, 6]. The leading role of pancreatogenic enzymes in the development of severe disorders of homeostasis and lifethreatening systemic complications during the fermentation phase of AP necessitates

5
Nedashkovsky V.E., Kirov M.Yu., Duberman B.L. Ostryi pankreatit. [Acute pancreatitis]. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media; 2009: 37. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1712
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    in the development of AP is ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), which involves diffuse pulmonary capillary endothelial damage, accompanied by disorders of the aero-haematic barrier [4]. Secondary lung injury complicates AP in 30—35% of the patients, and, according to various estimates, the mortality rate caused by AP in the development of ARDS reaches 50—70%
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    [5, 6]
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    . The leading role of pancreatogenic enzymes in the development of severe disorders of homeostasis and lifethreatening systemic complications during the fermentation phase of AP necessitates the removal of these auto-aggressive factors from the internal environment of the body.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16805
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    environment as a result of systemic impairments of the metabolism and inactivation disorders of metabolic products of natural detoxification systems in conjunction with an enormous output of inflammatory products, necrobiosis, and hypoxia [18]. EI is, therefore, a complex multicomponent process, which is conditioned by the abnormal activity of many endogenous products
    Exact
    [5, 8]
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    . However, in the early stage of AP, the most important pathogenic component of EI is enzyme toxemia — the result of activated pancreatic enzymes falling into systemic blood circulation. It is namely pancreatogenic enzymatic fermentation that constitutes the main cause of disorders of the homeostatic functions of the body at the onset of the disease.

6
Kallet R.H.Evidence-based management of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respir. Care.2004; 49 (7): 793—809. PMID: 15222911
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1712
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    in the development of AP is ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), which involves diffuse pulmonary capillary endothelial damage, accompanied by disorders of the aero-haematic barrier [4]. Secondary lung injury complicates AP in 30—35% of the patients, and, according to various estimates, the mortality rate caused by AP in the development of ARDS reaches 50—70%
    Exact
    [5, 6]
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    . The leading role of pancreatogenic enzymes in the development of severe disorders of homeostasis and lifethreatening systemic complications during the fermentation phase of AP necessitates the removal of these auto-aggressive factors from the internal environment of the body.

7
Khoroshilov S.E., Nikulin A.V.Efferentnoe lechenie kriticheskikh sostoyanii. [Efferent treatment for critical conditions]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2012; 8 (4): 30—41. [In Russ.]
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    of severe disorders of homeostasis and lifethreatening systemic complications during the fermentation phase of AP necessitates the removal of these auto-aggressive factors from the internal environment of the body. Currently, the most effective methods of eliminating toxins from systemic blood circulation are operations using extracorporeal detoxification techniques
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    [7, 8]
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    . In the last decade, efferent treatment methods, such as haemosorbtion, lymphoplasmatic sorbtion, haemofiltration, and xenoperfusion, have been used in complex intensive therapy of acute pancreatitis [9].

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    However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances
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    [7]
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    , whereas pancreatic enzymes, which are the most important predictors of acute lung injury in the early stages of AP, have a significantly greater mass. So, the molecular weight of lipase is 48 kDa, elastase — 28 kDa, trypsin — 24 kDa, and phospholipase A2 — approximately 15 kDa [15].

8
Vlasov A.P., Krylov V.G., Grigoryeva T.I., Nachkina E.I., Tingaev M.V. Korrektsiya sindroma endogennoi intoksikatsii pri ostrom pankreatite. [Correction of endogenous intoxication syndrome in acute pancreatitis]. Khirurgiya. Zhurnal Imeni N.I.Pirogova.2010; 5: 60—64. [In Russ.]
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    of severe disorders of homeostasis and lifethreatening systemic complications during the fermentation phase of AP necessitates the removal of these auto-aggressive factors from the internal environment of the body. Currently, the most effective methods of eliminating toxins from systemic blood circulation are operations using extracorporeal detoxification techniques
    Exact
    [7, 8]
    Suffix
    . In the last decade, efferent treatment methods, such as haemosorbtion, lymphoplasmatic sorbtion, haemofiltration, and xenoperfusion, have been used in complex intensive therapy of acute pancreatitis [9].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16805
    Prefix
    environment as a result of systemic impairments of the metabolism and inactivation disorders of metabolic products of natural detoxification systems in conjunction with an enormous output of inflammatory products, necrobiosis, and hypoxia [18]. EI is, therefore, a complex multicomponent process, which is conditioned by the abnormal activity of many endogenous products
    Exact
    [5, 8]
    Suffix
    . However, in the early stage of AP, the most important pathogenic component of EI is enzyme toxemia — the result of activated pancreatic enzymes falling into systemic blood circulation. It is namely pancreatogenic enzymatic fermentation that constitutes the main cause of disorders of the homeostatic functions of the body at the onset of the disease.

9
Konovchuk V.N., Kalugin V.A., Akentyev S.A.Plazmosorbtsiya pri lechenii bolnykh s endotoksikozami v usloviyakh intensivnoi terapii. [Plasma sorption in the treatment of patients with endotoxicoses during intensive therapy]. Efferentnaya Terapiya.2003; 9 (1): 90—91. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2405
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    In the last decade, efferent treatment methods, such as haemosorbtion, lymphoplasmatic sorbtion, haemofiltration, and xenoperfusion, have been used in complex intensive therapy of acute pancreatitis
    Exact
    [9]
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    . Thanks to their effect on blood, lymph or plasma, all of these methods reduce the intoxication level in patients with AP. Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis [10, 11] and haemodiafiltration [12—14] to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy

10
Gendel L.L., Cholariya N.Kh., Gubanova S.N.Znachenie metodov ekstrakorporalnoi gemokorrektsii v kompleksnom lechenii bolnykh s ostrym pankreatitom. [Significance of extracorporeal hemocorrection methods in the combination treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis]. Efferentnaya Terapiya.2003; 9 (1): 67—68. [In Russ.]
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    Thanks to their effect on blood, lymph or plasma, all of these methods reduce the intoxication level in patients with AP. Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis
    Exact
    [10, 11]
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    and haemodiafiltration [12—14] to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP [12, 14]. However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substanc

11
Desideri F., Van Vlierberghe H.Necrotizing acute pancreatitis following therapeutic plasmapheresis in HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.2011; 74 (2): 355—358. PMID: 21861325
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2669
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    Thanks to their effect on blood, lymph or plasma, all of these methods reduce the intoxication level in patients with AP. Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis
    Exact
    [10, 11]
    Suffix
    and haemodiafiltration [12—14] to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP [12, 14]. However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substanc

12
Podkorytova O.L. , Tomilina N.A., Bikbov B.T., Vtorenko V.I., Shirinsky V.G., Loktev V.V., Fedorova N.D., Chura I.S., Rodnikov S.E.Primenenie zamestitelnoi pochechnoi terapii v kompleksnom lechenii tyazhelogo ostrogo pankreatita. [Use of renal replacement therapy in the combination treatment of severe acute pancreatitis]. Nefrologia i Dializ. 2008; 10 (3—4): 226—233. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2703
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    Thanks to their effect on blood, lymph or plasma, all of these methods reduce the intoxication level in patients with AP. Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis [10, 11] and haemodiafiltration
    Exact
    [12—14]
    Suffix
    to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP [12, 14]. However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances [7], whereas pancreatic enzyme

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2847
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    Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis [10, 11] and haemodiafiltration [12—14] to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP
    Exact
    [12, 14]
    Suffix
    . However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances [7], whereas pancreatic enzymes, which are the most important predictors of acute lung injury in the early stages of AP, have a significantly greater mass.

13
Wada K., Takada T., Hirata K., Mayumi T., Yoshida M., Yokoe M., Kiriyama S., Hirota M., Kimura Y., Takeda K., Arata S., Hirota M., Sekimoto M., Isaji S., Takeyama Y., Gabata T., Kitamura N., Amano H. Treatment strategy for acute pancreatitis. J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Sci. 2010; 17 (1): 79—86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00534-009-0218-z. PMID: 20012325
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2703
    Prefix
    Thanks to their effect on blood, lymph or plasma, all of these methods reduce the intoxication level in patients with AP. Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis [10, 11] and haemodiafiltration
    Exact
    [12—14]
    Suffix
    to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP [12, 14]. However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances [7], whereas pancreatic enzyme

14
Akeksandrova I.V., Ilyinsky M.E., Rei S.I., Berdnikov G.A., Marchenkova L.V. Postoyannaya veno-venoznaya gemofiltratsiya v kompleksnom lechenii tyazhelogo ostrogo pankreatita. [Continuous venovenous hemofiltration in the combination treatment of severe acute pancreatitis]. Anesteziologiya i Reanimatologiya. 2011; 3: 54—58. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2703
    Prefix
    Thanks to their effect on blood, lymph or plasma, all of these methods reduce the intoxication level in patients with AP. Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis [10, 11] and haemodiafiltration
    Exact
    [12—14]
    Suffix
    to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP [12, 14]. However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances [7], whereas pancreatic enzyme

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2847
    Prefix
    Despite the great variety of extracorporeal detoxification and haemocorrection techniques, most clinics use plasmapheresis [10, 11] and haemodiafiltration [12—14] to treat patients with AP; these methods are truly effective when used as an adjuvant therapy applied after initial treatment of AP
    Exact
    [12, 14]
    Suffix
    . However, it should be noted that the range of substances, eliminated by detoxification techniques using prolonged filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances [7], whereas pancreatic enzymes, which are the most important predictors of acute lung injury in the early stages of AP, have a significantly greater mass.

15
Karpishchenko A.I.Meditsinskaya laboratornaya diagnostika. [Medical laboratory diagnosis]. Sankt-Peterburg; 2001: 338—342. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3371
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    filtration, are, in most cases, limited to low-and-medium-molecular-weight substances [7], whereas pancreatic enzymes, which are the most important predictors of acute lung injury in the early stages of AP, have a significantly greater mass. So, the molecular weight of lipase is 48 kDa, elastase — 28 kDa, trypsin — 24 kDa, and phospholipase A2 — approximately 15 kDa
    Exact
    [15]
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    . Highly aggressive factors, such as activated pancreatic enzymes, can be effectively removed from the internal environment through plasmapheresis [16]. Therefore, we consider it reasonable to conduct a research study in order to determine the effectiveness of plasmapheresis in reducing hyperenzymemia as one of the major pathogenetic factors of the development of A

16
Kichin V.V., Sungurov V.A., Ryabov S.V. Obmennyi plazmaferez v kompleksnom lechenii bolnykh s pankreonekrozom. [Exchange plasmapheresis in the combination treatment of patients with pancreatic necrosis]. Almanakh Anesteziologii i Reanimatologii. 2005; 5: 24. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3526
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    So, the molecular weight of lipase is 48 kDa, elastase — 28 kDa, trypsin — 24 kDa, and phospholipase A2 — approximately 15 kDa [15]. Highly aggressive factors, such as activated pancreatic enzymes, can be effectively removed from the internal environment through plasmapheresis
    Exact
    [16]
    Suffix
    . Therefore, we consider it reasonable to conduct a research study in order to determine the effectiveness of plasmapheresis in reducing hyperenzymemia as one of the major pathogenetic factors of the development of AP and its complications, especially acute lung injury (ALI) as an early stage of ARDS.

17
Moroz V.V., Vlasenko A.V., Golubev A.M., Yakovlev V.N., Alekseyev V.G., Bulatov N.N., Smelaya T.V. Patogenez i differentsialnaya diagnostika ostrogo respiratornogo distress-sindroma, obuslovlennogo pryamymi i nepryamymi etiologicheskimi faktorami. [Pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by direct and indirect etiological factors]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2011; 7 (3): 5—13. [In Russ.]
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=8047
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    cells, white blood cells, platelets, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, fibrinogen, electrolytes), and urine levels; we examined pancreatic enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, lipase) in the patients' blood serum and exfused plasma. ARDS was established through clinical and laboratory data, and radiological examinations of the thoracic cavity
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    [17]
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    . All patients underwent complex intensive therapy: infusion, antibiotics (Metronidazole, Cefepime), antifermental treatment, stress ulcer prophylaxis in the gastrointestinal tract, nutritional support by nutrient mixtures fed through a nasointestinal tube, prophylaxis for thrombotic complications (unfractionated heparin), and epidural blocks.

18
Afanasyeva A.N., Odintsova I.N., Udut V.V.Sindromy endogennoi intoksikatsii i sistemnogo vospalitelnogo otveta: obshchnost i razlichiya. [Endogenous intoxication and systemic inflammatory response syndromes: Community and differences]. Anesteziologiya i Reanimatologiya2007; 4: 67—71. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16662
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    In EI (endogenous intoxication), accompanied by AP (acute pancreatitis), excess substances enter and are preserved in the internal environment as a result of systemic impairments of the metabolism and inactivation disorders of metabolic products of natural detoxification systems in conjunction with an enormous output of inflammatory products, necrobiosis, and hypoxia
    Exact
    [18]
    Suffix
    . EI is, therefore, a complex multicomponent process, which is conditioned by the abnormal activity of many endogenous products [5, 8]. However, in the early stage of AP, the most important pathogenic component of EI is enzyme toxemia — the result of activated pancreatic enzymes falling into systemic blood circulation.