The 37 references with contexts in paper A. Yakovlev Yu, N. Gushchina N., A. Niyazmatov A., R. Zatsev M, E. Golubtsova Yu, M. Ryabikova A., А. Яковлев Ю., Н. Гущина Н., А. Ниязматов А., Р. Зайцев М, Е. Голубцова Ю., М. Рябикова А. (2013) “Ранняя оценка эффективности антибактериальной терапии нозокомиальной пневмонии путем количественного определения липополисахарида // Early Evaluation of the Efficiency of Antibiotic Therapy for Nosocomial Pneumonia by Quantifying Lipopolysaccharide” / spz:neicon:reanimatology:y:2013:i:6:p:45

1
American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2005; 171 (4): 388–416. PMID: 15699079
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=230
    Prefix
    Introduction One percent of hospital patients suffer from the nosocomial pneumonia (NP) that is developed in 20% of mechanically ventilated patients. NP increases the risk of death and requires considerable treatment expenses
    Exact
    [1—4]
    Suffix
    . The most frequent causes of NP are infections evoked by gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spiralis., Klebsiella spiralis. etc.) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms multiresistant to antibacterial drugs (ABD) [5].

2
Richards M.J., Edwards J.R., Culver D.H., Gaynes R.P.Nosocomial infections in medical ICUs in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 27 (5): 887–892. PMID: 10362409
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=230
    Prefix
    Introduction One percent of hospital patients suffer from the nosocomial pneumonia (NP) that is developed in 20% of mechanically ventilated patients. NP increases the risk of death and requires considerable treatment expenses
    Exact
    [1—4]
    Suffix
    . The most frequent causes of NP are infections evoked by gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spiralis., Klebsiella spiralis. etc.) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms multiresistant to antibacterial drugs (ABD) [5].

3
Smelaya T.V., Salnikova L.E., Moroz V.V., Golubev A.M., Zarzhetsky Yu.V., Rubanovich A.V.Genetichesky polimorfizm i chastota razvitiya oslozhnenii pri pnevmonii razlichnogo geneza. [Genetic polymorphism and the rate of development of complications in pneumonia of varying genesis]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2011; 7 (2): 10—17. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=230
    Prefix
    Introduction One percent of hospital patients suffer from the nosocomial pneumonia (NP) that is developed in 20% of mechanically ventilated patients. NP increases the risk of death and requires considerable treatment expenses
    Exact
    [1—4]
    Suffix
    . The most frequent causes of NP are infections evoked by gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spiralis., Klebsiella spiralis. etc.) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms multiresistant to antibacterial drugs (ABD) [5].

4
Khubutiya M.Sh., Shabanov A.K., Chernenkaya T.V., Godkov M.A., Dorfman A.G. Infektsionnye legochnye oslozhneniya v reanimatsii i intensivnoi terapii u postradavshikh s sochetannoi travmoi. [Infectious pulmonary complications in intensive care unit victims with concomitant injury]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya.2011; 7 (4): 24—27. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=230
    Prefix
    Introduction One percent of hospital patients suffer from the nosocomial pneumonia (NP) that is developed in 20% of mechanically ventilated patients. NP increases the risk of death and requires considerable treatment expenses
    Exact
    [1—4]
    Suffix
    . The most frequent causes of NP are infections evoked by gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spiralis., Klebsiella spiralis. etc.) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms multiresistant to antibacterial drugs (ABD) [5].

5
Depuydt P., Myny D., Blot S.Nosocomial pneumonia: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med.2006; 12 (3): 192—197. PMID: 16582674
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=502
    Prefix
    The most frequent causes of NP are infections evoked by gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spiralis., Klebsiella spiralis. etc.) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms multiresistant to antibacterial drugs (ABD)
    Exact
    [5]
    Suffix
    . The diversity of «problem» bacteria causing nosocomial infections and high lethality are due to inadequacy of ABD use or delay in ABD administration. These obstacles are usually circumventing by the use of evidencebased regimens of treatment with those ABD that are active against most actual germs and capable to overcome resistance mechanisms of hospital fl

6
Iregui M., Ward S., Sherman G., Fraser V.J., Kollef M.H.Clinical importance of delays in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest.2002; 122 (1): 262–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.122.1.262. PMID: 12114368
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=909
    Prefix
    These obstacles are usually circumventing by the use of evidencebased regimens of treatment with those ABD that are active against most actual germs and capable to overcome resistance mechanisms of hospital flora
    Exact
    [6]
    Suffix
    . This is considered as a reason for a deescalation therapy [7—9]. Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12].

7
Chuchalin A.G., Gelfand B.R. (red.).Nozokomialnaya pnevmoniya u vzroslykh. Rossiiskie natsionalnye rekomendatsii. [Nosocomial pneumonia in adults. Russian national guidelines]. Moscow: Borges; 2009. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=971
    Prefix
    These obstacles are usually circumventing by the use of evidencebased regimens of treatment with those ABD that are active against most actual germs and capable to overcome resistance mechanisms of hospital flora [6]. This is considered as a reason for a deescalation therapy
    Exact
    [7—9]
    Suffix
    . Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2083
    Prefix
    Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy
    Exact
    [7, 27]
    Suffix
    . Methods of early bacterial identification in concert with the estimation of antibiotic sensitivity might have limited availability due to technological problems and high cost of analyzing equipment and operating materials.

8
Beloborodov V.B.Antibakterialnaya terapiya pnevmonii, svyazannoi s iskusstvennoi ventilyatsiei legkikh: put ot natsionalnykh rekomendatsii do primeneniya v otdelenii. [Antibacterial therapy for mechanical ventilation-associated pneumonia: A path from national guidelines to their use in the unit]. Infektsii v Khirurgii.2011; 9 (2): 66—72. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=971
    Prefix
    These obstacles are usually circumventing by the use of evidencebased regimens of treatment with those ABD that are active against most actual germs and capable to overcome resistance mechanisms of hospital flora [6]. This is considered as a reason for a deescalation therapy
    Exact
    [7—9]
    Suffix
    . Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12].

9
Luna C.M., Aruj P., Niederman M.S., Garzo ́n J., Violi D., Prignoni A., Ríos F., Baquero S., Gando S.; Grupo Argentino de Estudio de la Neumonнa Asociada al Respirador group. Appropriateness and delay to initiate therapy in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Eur. Respir. J.2006; 27 (1): 158–164. PMID: 16387949
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=971
    Prefix
    These obstacles are usually circumventing by the use of evidencebased regimens of treatment with those ABD that are active against most actual germs and capable to overcome resistance mechanisms of hospital flora [6]. This is considered as a reason for a deescalation therapy
    Exact
    [7—9]
    Suffix
    . Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12].

10
Wood G.C., Boucher B.A.Aerosolized antimicrobial therapy in acutely ill patients. Pharmacotherapy.2000; 20 (2): 166—181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1592/phco.20.3.166.34783. PMID: 10678295
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1163
    Prefix
    This is considered as a reason for a deescalation therapy [7—9]. Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD
    Exact
    [10]
    Suffix
    , the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12]. Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area [13] resulting in better bacterial killing [14, 15] and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity [16].

11
Moss R.B.Long-term benefits of inhaled tobramycin in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest.2002; 121 (1): 55—63. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1378/chest.121.1.55. PMID: 11796432
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1231
    Prefix
    Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [11, 12]
    Suffix
    . Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area [13] resulting in better bacterial killing [14, 15] and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity [16].

12
Cheer S.M., Waugh J., Noble S.Inhaled tobramycin (TOBI): A review of its use in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosainfections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Drugs.2003; 63 (22): 2501—2520. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200363220-00015. PMID: 14609360
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1231
    Prefix
    Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients
    Exact
    [11, 12]
    Suffix
    . Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area [13] resulting in better bacterial killing [14, 15] and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity [16].

13
Carcas A.J., García-Satue ́J.L., Zapater P., Frías-Iniesta J. Tobramycin penetration into epithelial lining fluid of patients with pneumonia. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.1999; 65 (3): 245–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0009-9236(99)70103-7. PMID: 10096256
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1341
    Prefix
    Clinical and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12]. Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area
    Exact
    [13]
    Suffix
    resulting in better bacterial killing [14, 15] and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity [16]. Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations.

14
Goldstein I., Wallet F., Nicolas-Robin A., Ferrari F., Marquette C.-H., Rouby J.-J.Lung deposition and efficiency of nebulized amikacin during Escherichia coli pneumonia in ventilated piglets. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2002; 166 (10): 1375–1381. PMID: 12406838
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1383
    Prefix
    and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12]. Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area [13] resulting in better bacterial killing
    Exact
    [14, 15]
    Suffix
    and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity [16]. Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations.

15
Makhoul I.R., Merzbach D., Lichtig C., Berant M.Antibiotic treatment of experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosapneumonia in guinea pigs: comparison of aerosol and systemic administration. J. Infect. Dis.1993; 168 (5): 1296–1299. PMID: 8228367
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1383
    Prefix
    and economical consequences of multiresistance of bacteria to ABD and lack of new ABD active against those pathogens stimulated the inhalationt use of ABD [10], the efficacy of which was proved in cystic fibrosis patients [11, 12]. Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area [13] resulting in better bacterial killing
    Exact
    [14, 15]
    Suffix
    and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity [16]. Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations.

16
Kahler D.A., Schowengerdt K.O., Fricker F.J., Mansfield M., Visner G.A., Faro A.Toxic serum trough concentrations after administration of nebulized tobramycin. Pharmacotherapy.2003; 23 (4): 543–545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1592/phco.23.4.543.32122. PMID: 12680485
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1454
    Prefix
    Inhalation allows maintaining the high concentration of the medication in the infection area [13] resulting in better bacterial killing [14, 15] and lowing both systemic absorption of medication and toxicity
    Exact
    [16]
    Suffix
    . Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations. The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients [17—21].

17
Moroz V.V., Kuzovlev A.N., Polovnikov S.G., Stets V.V., Varvarin V.V. Ingalyatsionnyi tobramitsin v lechenii tyachelykh nozokomialnykh pnevmonii. [Inhaled tobramycin in the treatment of severe nosocomial pneumonias]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2012; 8 (2): 5—9. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1704
    Prefix
    Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations. The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients
    Exact
    [17—21]
    Suffix
    . Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases [22—26]. Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

18
Avdeyev S.N., Karchevskaya N.A., Chuchalin A.G.Opyt ispolzovaniya ingalyatsionnogo tobramitsina pri nozokomialnoi pnevmonii. [Experience with inhaled tobramycin in nosocomial pneumonia]. Lechebnoe Delo.2009; 2: 80—88. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1704
    Prefix
    Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations. The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients
    Exact
    [17—21]
    Suffix
    . Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases [22—26]. Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

19
Le Conte P., Potel G., Clementi E., Legras A., Villers D., Bironneau E., Cousson J., Baron D.Administration of tobramycin aerosols in patients with nosocomial pneumonia: a preliminary study. Presse Med.2000; 29 (2): 76–78. PMID: 10682031
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1704
    Prefix
    Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations. The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients
    Exact
    [17—21]
    Suffix
    . Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases [22—26]. Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13037
    Prefix
    faster germ-killig effect in sputum and bronchial/alveolar microenvironment because the intravenous injections of ABD accumulation of the active substance there is delayed due to due to alterations of drug distribution in tissues. These findings have been proved indirectly in numerous papers demonstrating clinical advantages of inhalations compared to intravenous therapy
    Exact
    [19, 21, 33]
    Suffix
    . In our study high clinical effectiveness of the employed therapies has been demonstrated, however, any significant proof of inhalations advantages in terms of influence on titers of microorganisms in sputum has not been achieved.

20
Hallal A., Cohn S.M., Namias N., Habib F., Baracco G., Manning R.J., Crookes B., Schulman C.I.Aerosolized tobramycin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a pilot study. Surg. Infect. (Larchmt). 2007; 8 (1): 73—82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2006.051. PMID: 17381399
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1704
    Prefix
    Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations. The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients
    Exact
    [17—21]
    Suffix
    . Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases [22—26]. Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

21
Ghannam D.E., Rodriguez G.H., Raad I.I., Safdar A.Inhaled aminoglycosides in cancer patients with ventilator-associated Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia: safety and feasibility in the era of escalating drug resistance. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2009; 28 (3): 253—259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-008-0620-5. PMID: 18752007
Total in-text references: 3
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1704
    Prefix
    Recently conducted pilot studies have demonstrated the efficiency of combining the systemic antibacterial therapy with inhalations. The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients
    Exact
    [17—21]
    Suffix
    . Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases [22—26]. Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13037
    Prefix
    faster germ-killig effect in sputum and bronchial/alveolar microenvironment because the intravenous injections of ABD accumulation of the active substance there is delayed due to due to alterations of drug distribution in tissues. These findings have been proved indirectly in numerous papers demonstrating clinical advantages of inhalations compared to intravenous therapy
    Exact
    [19, 21, 33]
    Suffix
    . In our study high clinical effectiveness of the employed therapies has been demonstrated, however, any significant proof of inhalations advantages in terms of influence on titers of microorganisms in sputum has not been achieved.

  3. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14961
    Prefix
    that further improvements in treatment with ABD through employing the inhaled forms of ABD might stem from the decrease of proinflammatory cytokines produced by neutrophils and macrophages (interleukine 1β, tumor necrosis factor αetc.) as well as from the manipulating of the release of molecules of intracellular adhesion 1 (sICAM-I) reducing the neutrophilous elastase
    Exact
    [21]
    Suffix
    . Conclusion 1. After the beginning of the systemic or inhalation antibacterial therapy in patients with NP LPS level is increased in arterial blood. This quantitative pattern seems to be an early candidate biomarker of ABD efficacy in a particular patient.

22
Mohr A.M., Sifri Z.C., Horng H.S., Sadek R., Savetamal A., Hauser C.J., Livingston D.H.Use of aerosolized aminoglycosides in the treatment of gram-negative ventilator-associated pneumonia. Surg. Infect. (Larchmt).2007; 8 (3): 349—357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ sur.2006.041. PMID: 17635058
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1829
    Prefix
    The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients [17—21]. Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases
    Exact
    [22—26]
    Suffix
    . Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

23
McCall C.Y., Spruill W.J., Wade W.E.The use of aerosolized tobramycin in the treatment of a resistant pseudomonal pneumonia. Ther. Drug Monit.1989; 11 (6): 692–695. PMID: 2595751
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1829
    Prefix
    The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients [17—21]. Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases
    Exact
    [22—26]
    Suffix
    . Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

24
Chastre J., Wolff M., Fagon J.Y., Chevret S., Thomas F., Wermert D., Clementi E., Gonzalez J., Jusserand D., Asfar P., Perrin D., Fieux F., Aubas S.; PneumA Trial Group.Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults. JAMA. 2003; 290 (19): 2588–2598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.19.2588. PMID: 14625336
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1829
    Prefix
    The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients [17—21]. Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases
    Exact
    [22—26]
    Suffix
    . Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

25
Beloborodov V.B.Prakticheskie rekomendatsii po diagnostike i lecheniyu nozokomialnoi pnevmonii: chto novogo? [Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nosocomial pneumonia: What is new?] Infektsii i Antimikrobnaya Terapiya.2005; 2: 60—66. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1829
    Prefix
    The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients [17—21]. Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases
    Exact
    [22—26]
    Suffix
    . Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

26
Khairullina R.M., Mavzyutov A.R., Fazlyeva R.M., Akbasheva A.O., Kuzovkina O.Z.Sostoyanie antiendotoksinovoi zashchity pri vnebolnichnoi pnevmonii. [The antiendotoxin defense in community-acquired pneumonia]. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii. 2010; 4: 65—71. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1829
    Prefix
    The combination therapy improved therapeutic efficacy with low toxic effects in patients [17—21]. Numerous studies had demonstrated the advantages of inhaled tobramycin versus intravenous mode in severe NP cases
    Exact
    [22—26]
    Suffix
    . Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy [7, 27].

27
Matkevich V.A., Luzhnikov E.A., Ilyashenko K.K., Petrov S.N., Nikulina V.P., Evdokimova N.V.Vliyanie kishechnogo lavazha na razvitie pnevmonii u bolnykh s ostrymi otravleniyami psikhofarmakologicheskimi sredstvami. [Impact of intestinal lavage on the development of pneumonia in patients with acute poisonings by psychopharmacological agents]. Obshchaya Reanimatologiya. 2011; 7 (2): 20—24. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2083
    Prefix
    Until today the estimation of the antibacterial therapy effectiveness is based on clinical parameters (body temperature, leukocytosis, somatic status) that are available for analysis after 48—72 hours of beginning of the therapy
    Exact
    [7, 27]
    Suffix
    . Methods of early bacterial identification in concert with the estimation of antibiotic sensitivity might have limited availability due to technological problems and high cost of analyzing equipment and operating materials.

28
Grotta M.B., Etchebere E.C., Ribeiro A.F., Romanato J., Ribeiro M.A., Ribeiro J.D. Pulmonary deposition of inhaled tobramycin prior to and after respiratory therapy and use of inhaled albuterol in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bras. Pneumol. 2009; 35 (1): 35—43. PMID: 19219329
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=5039
    Prefix
    Earlier studies showed an increase in LPS binding protein and endotoxin concentrations in patients with severe pneumonia, however, the dynamics of these molecules during the antibacterial therapy was not evaluated
    Exact
    [28, 29]
    Suffix
    . Analysis of the arterial-venous difference of gram-negative bacteria LPS level might provide information on detoxifying activities of the lungs detoxicant activity as well as on the site of the gram-negative infection in the pulmonary circuit.

29
Mayansky A.N.Mikrobiologiya dlya vrachei. [Microbiology for physicians]. Nizhny Novgorod: NGMA; 1999: 127. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=5039
    Prefix
    Earlier studies showed an increase in LPS binding protein and endotoxin concentrations in patients with severe pneumonia, however, the dynamics of these molecules during the antibacterial therapy was not evaluated
    Exact
    [28, 29]
    Suffix
    . Analysis of the arterial-venous difference of gram-negative bacteria LPS level might provide information on detoxifying activities of the lungs detoxicant activity as well as on the site of the gram-negative infection in the pulmonary circuit.

30
Yakovlev V.P., Yakovlev S.V., Aleksandrova I.A.Ratsionalnaya antimikrobnaya terapiya. [Rational antimicrobial therapy]. Moscow: Litterra; 2007: 783. [In Russ.]
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=7383
    Prefix
    Inhaled tobramycin was employed as the main medication due to absence of other sites of infection and because of proved fast and equal diffusion through lung tissue regardless the initial ventilation-perfusion imbalance
    Exact
    [30]
    Suffix
    . There were no cases of microflora resistance against the applied ABD found. Initial microbiological inoculation showed no significant difference between the groups. Patients that had gram-positive microflora in culture sputum in combination with gram-negative microorganisms were excluded from the study. 22 patients were transferred from intensive care departments of other hospi

31
Palmer L.B., Smaldone G.C., Simon S.R., O’Riordan T.G., Cuccia A. Aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients: delivery and response. Crit. Care Med.1998; 26 (1): 31–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003246-199801000-00013. PMID: 9428540
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11320
    Prefix
    In future the administration of bronchial spasmolytics and early aminophylline inhalation prevented similar complications. There was no cases of ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity when employing the inhaled tobramycin. LPS (endotoxin, O-antigen) is a membrane structural component of all gram-negative bacteria
    Exact
    [31]
    Suffix
    . The structural alterations of a bacterial membrane results in endotoxemia since one bacteria contain up to 3 500 000 LPS molecules. High activity of carbapenems and aminoglycosides (especially tobramycin and amikacin) against non-fermenting gramnegative flora leads to rapid killing of germs [32].

32
Goldstein I., Chastre J., Rouby J.J.Novel and innovative strategies to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia: optimizing the duration of therapy and nebulizing antimicrobial agents. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2006; 27 (1): 82–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-933676. PMID: 16508884
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11635
    Prefix
    The structural alterations of a bacterial membrane results in endotoxemia since one bacteria contain up to 3 500 000 LPS molecules. High activity of carbapenems and aminoglycosides (especially tobramycin and amikacin) against non-fermenting gramnegative flora leads to rapid killing of germs
    Exact
    [32]
    Suffix
    . This results in a release of large number of LPS molecules into microenvironment and arterial blood stream thus providing potential benefit to employ these consequences in developing method for express evaluation of effectiveness of antibacterial therapy.

33
Conrad D.J.The clinical use of aerosolized antibiotics. Clin. Pulm. Med. 2003; 10 (4): 201—220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.cpm. 0000080903.11193.e9.
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13037
    Prefix
    faster germ-killig effect in sputum and bronchial/alveolar microenvironment because the intravenous injections of ABD accumulation of the active substance there is delayed due to due to alterations of drug distribution in tissues. These findings have been proved indirectly in numerous papers demonstrating clinical advantages of inhalations compared to intravenous therapy
    Exact
    [19, 21, 33]
    Suffix
    . In our study high clinical effectiveness of the employed therapies has been demonstrated, however, any significant proof of inhalations advantages in terms of influence on titers of microorganisms in sputum has not been achieved.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13493
    Prefix
    Aerosol aminoglycosides therapy is carried on easily by the patients and results in high concentration of the medication in lung tissue. At the same time their serum concentration is not intense
    Exact
    [33, 34]
    Suffix
    . This improves therapy effectiveness, its safety and decreases side effects and adverse experiences. Only few such incident have been noted in present similar studies. It is unacceptable to employ intravenous and other forms of ABD for inhalations due to common complications (bronchial and glottic spasm, coughing, damages in the mouth, gorge, trachea and bronchi, breast

34
Geller D.E., Pitlick W.H., Nardella P.A., Tracewell W.G., Ramsey B.W. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of aerosolized tobramycin in cystic fibrosis. Chest.2002; 122 (1): 219–226. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1378/chest.122.1.219. PMID: 12114362
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13493
    Prefix
    Aerosol aminoglycosides therapy is carried on easily by the patients and results in high concentration of the medication in lung tissue. At the same time their serum concentration is not intense
    Exact
    [33, 34]
    Suffix
    . This improves therapy effectiveness, its safety and decreases side effects and adverse experiences. Only few such incident have been noted in present similar studies. It is unacceptable to employ intravenous and other forms of ABD for inhalations due to common complications (bronchial and glottic spasm, coughing, damages in the mouth, gorge, trachea and bronchi, breast

35
Le Conte P., Potel G., Peltier P., Horeau D., Caillon J., Juvin M.E., Kergue ́ris M.F., Bugnon D., Baron D.Lung distribution and pharmacokinetics of aerosolized tobramycin. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.1993; 147 (5): 1279—1282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/147.5.1279. PMID: 8484643
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13948
    Prefix
    It is unacceptable to employ intravenous and other forms of ABD for inhalations due to common complications (bronchial and glottic spasm, coughing, damages in the mouth, gorge, trachea and bronchi, breast pain) that may defame new therapy development
    Exact
    [35]
    Suffix
    . It is known that after the first tobramycin inhalation its concentration in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients quickly reached maximum therapeutic means that 25-fold exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration for Pseudomonas sp. remaining at a minimum concentration in blood [36].

36
Ramsey B.W., Pepe M.S., Quan J.M., Otto K.L., Montgomery A.B., Williams-Warren J., Vasiljev K.M., Borowitz D., Bowman C.M., Marshall B.C., Marshall S., Smith A.L.Intermittent administration of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. N. Engl. J. Med.1999; 340 (1): 23–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199901073400104. PMID: 9878641
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14245
    Prefix
    It is known that after the first tobramycin inhalation its concentration in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients quickly reached maximum therapeutic means that 25-fold exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration for Pseudomonas sp. remaining at a minimum concentration in blood
    Exact
    [36]
    Suffix
    . The same results were collected after examination of a lung cancer patient who had been receiving inhalant tobramycin before pulmonectomy [37]. This was also true for other studied antibiotics that required high concentration of ABD for effective killing of germs [38, 39].

37
Touw D.J., Jacobs F.A., Brimicombe R.W., Heijerman H.G., Bakker W., Briemer D.D.Pharmacokinetics of aerosolized tobramycin in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.1997; 41 (1): 184–187. PMID: 8980777 Submited 01.03.13
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14401
    Prefix
    concentration in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients quickly reached maximum therapeutic means that 25-fold exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration for Pseudomonas sp. remaining at a minimum concentration in blood [36]. The same results were collected after examination of a lung cancer patient who had been receiving inhalant tobramycin before pulmonectomy
    Exact
    [37]
    Suffix
    . This was also true for other studied antibiotics that required high concentration of ABD for effective killing of germs [38, 39]. It is believed that further improvements in treatment with ABD through employing the inhaled forms of ABD might stem from the decrease of proinflammatory cytokines produced by neutrophils and macrophages (interleukine 1β, tumor necrosis factor α