The 67 references with contexts in paper Chamberlain Douglas , Чемберлен Дуглас (2005) “Владимир Неговский: отец реаниматологии // Vladimar Negovsky: The Father of Reanimatology” / spz:neicon:reanimatology:1298

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Safar P.The resuscitation greats. Vladimir Negovsky the father of 'reanimatology'. Resuscitation 2001; 49: 223—229.
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    What we do know, however, demonstrates not only his interest and skill in resuscitation medicine but also his foresight and prescience. These were clearly reflected in the article written about him by his distinguished friend, Peter Safar
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    as part of the 'Resuscitation Greats' series in the Journal Resuscitation; I have drawn heavily on this source. I will use these glimpses of his contributions and insight as a framework to indicate how far he was ahead of his time but also to show how poorly we have built on his achievements and those of the few other notable pioneers in resuscitation medic

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Negovsky V. A.Resuscitation of the Organism: Agonal States and Clinical Death. Moscow: Unknown, 1943 (book in Russian). Published also in English in Amer. Rev. of Soviet Med.; 1945, Vol . 2; and 1946, Vol. 3.
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    This was no whim, but represented a dedication to a branch of medicine that was as yet unrecognized. In 1943 — during a hugely destructive world war which was so far foreign to his own ideals — he published his Thesis on the pathophysiology and reversal of death
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    , and in 1961 he declared the birth of a new science of reanimatology at an international conference on traumatology here in Budapest [3]. He worked ceaselessly at the development of the new science and broadened its scope beyond the immediacy of acute events.

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Negovsky V. A.International Traumatology Conference, Budapest. Traumatology and Orthopedics 1961; 3—4: 259.
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    In 1943 — during a hugely destructive world war which was so far foreign to his own ideals — he published his Thesis on the pathophysiology and reversal of death [2], and in 1961 he declared the birth of a new science of reanimatology at an international conference on traumatology here in Budapest
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    . He worked ceaselessly at the development of the new science and broadened its scope beyond the immediacy of acute events. The Concept of Post Resuscitation Disease that became available in the West in 1983 [4] was another landmark for scientists who were by then working in the field.

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Negovsky V. A., Gurvitch A. M., Zolotokrylina E. S.Postresuscitation disease. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1983.
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    He worked ceaselessly at the development of the new science and broadened its scope beyond the immediacy of acute events. The Concept of Post Resuscitation Disease that became available in the West in 1983
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    was another landmark for scientists who were by then working in the field. Negovsky remained active in reanimatology almost until he died at the age of 92. Over the two-thirds of a century of his work in the field, Negovsky published over 300 papers.

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Hillman K., Parr M., Flabouris et al.Redefining in hospital resuscitation: the concept of the medical emergency team. Resuscitation 2001; 48: 105—110.
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    The prevention of terminal states has only recently become fashionable outside Russia and Eastern Europe with the development of Medical Emergency Teams that have become widespread after publications from Australia
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    . Reanimatology itself embraces many aspects of the control of pathophysiology which include all of the following: Control of vascular coagulopathy Control of ventilation Control of arrhythmias Control of haemodynamics Control of temperature Control of metabolic abnormalities Control of residual ischaemia Control of residual electrical instability All of these have a resonance with

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Chamberlain D.Never quite there: a tale of resuscitation medicine Resuscitation 2004; 60: 3—11.
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    But had Nekovsky's notable contributions been more widely appreciated, progress world-wide could have been faster. Resuscitation is replete with examples of real advances that were either ignored or briefly adopted but inappropriately forgotten
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    . It is of interest and salutary to consider these headings in a little more detail: we may not accept all of Negovsky's concepts but there is much that was ahead of its time. Even now, those of us in Western Europe have poor access to Negovsky's publications: doubtless many of the dates that we can ascribe to his prescient ideas from publications that are available to us r

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Negovskii V.In сardiac arrest and resuscitation. Ed. Stephenson 4th ed. Mosby St Louis: Mosby St; 1974.
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    Even now, those of us in Western Europe have poor access to Negovsky's publications: doubtless many of the dates that we can ascribe to his prescient ideas from publications that are available to us reflect work that was published much earlier in his own country. Control of vascular coagulopathy.Negovsky, in an American publication of 1974
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    , made the following interesting statement on coagulopathy: With cessation of blood circulation, coagulation of the blood is significantly accelerated, and the coag; ulogram... manifests the traits characteristic of hyper; coagulation.

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    been impressed by this failure to exploit one of the few effective treatments for malignant arrhythmias, though I am not aware of any direct comments he might have made on this topic. Control of haemodynamics.Negovsky had firm views on this topic as one might expect from his known interest in trauma. In this regard his views are not fully in accord with modern concepts
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    . «It is known that protracted hypotension, espe; cially when preceded by un;replaced blood loss, can lead to irreversible damage of vitally important organs even before clinical death has set in» Thus far all would agree, and again the point is worthy of emphasis.

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Crowell J. W., Lambright R. L., Scharpe G. P.Changes in coagulatuion time due to acute circulatory failure. Amer. J. Physiol. 1954; 179: 628.
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    Only very recently is the importance of coagulopathy to the outcome of cardiac arrest becoming accepted. Even thirty years ago, however, it was not, entirely new. In 1954, Cromwell and colleagues described the occurrence of clotting in small blood vessels
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    , and two years later the same group found that the administration of streptokinase could improve the survival of dogs with induced circulatory arrest [9]. But it was not until 1995 that Fischer and Hossman re-emphasized in the West the importance of a vascular no-reflow phenomenon after experimental cardiac arrest [10].

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Crowell J. W., Smith E. E.Effect of fibrinolytic activation on survival and cerebral damage following periods of circulatory arrest. Am. J. Physiol. 1956; 186: 283—285.
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    In 1954, Cromwell and colleagues described the occurrence of clotting in small blood vessels [8], and two years later the same group found that the administration of streptokinase could improve the survival of dogs with induced circulatory arrest
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    . But it was not until 1995 that Fischer and Hossman re-emphasized in the West the importance of a vascular no-reflow phenomenon after experimental cardiac arrest [10]. This was confirmed as an important complication of pre-hospital clinical cardiac arrest in 1997 [11] when massive fibrin formation was described as an impediment to restoration of an effective circulation

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Fischer M., Hossmann K. A.No re-flow after cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med 1995; 21: 132—141.
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    the occurrence of clotting in small blood vessels [8], and two years later the same group found that the administration of streptokinase could improve the survival of dogs with induced circulatory arrest [9]. But it was not until 1995 that Fischer and Hossman re-emphasized in the West the importance of a vascular no-reflow phenomenon after experimental cardiac arrest
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    . This was confirmed as an important complication of pre-hospital clinical cardiac arrest in 1997 [11] when massive fibrin formation was described as an impediment to restoration of an effective circulation.

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Gando S., Kameue T., Nanzaki S., Nakansishi Y.Massive fibrin formation with consecturive impairment of fibtrinolysis in patients with out-ofhospital cardiac arrest. Thromb. Haemost. 1997; 77: 278—282.
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    But it was not until 1995 that Fischer and Hossman re-emphasized in the West the importance of a vascular no-reflow phenomenon after experimental cardiac arrest [10]. This was confirmed as an important complication of pre-hospital clinical cardiac arrest in 1997
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    when massive fibrin formation was described as an impediment to restoration of an effective circulation. Even after intravascular clotting was found to be important in the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest, physicians were reluctant to use fibrinolysis as treatment because victims would almost invariably have had chest compressions: the trauma was seen as an important r

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Tenaglia A. N., Califf R. M., Candela R. J. et al.Thrombotic therapy in patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am. J. Cardiol. 1991; 68: 1015—1019.
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    But gradually experience was gained of the use of fibrinolysis in patients who had had myocardial infarction complicated initially by cardiac arrest. The risk of haemorrhage was found to be small after limited
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    or even prolonged [13] cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This encouraged preliminary studies of fibrinolysis as a deliberate treatment of cardiac arrest [14,15]. A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs [16,17].

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Campen L. C. M. C., van Leeuwen G. R., Verheught F. W. A.Safety and efficacy of thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction in patients with prolonged out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am. J. Cardiol. 1994; 73: 9535.
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    But gradually experience was gained of the use of fibrinolysis in patients who had had myocardial infarction complicated initially by cardiac arrest. The risk of haemorrhage was found to be small after limited [12] or even prolonged
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    cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This encouraged preliminary studies of fibrinolysis as a deliberate treatment of cardiac arrest [14,15]. A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs [16,17].

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Böttiger B. W., Bode C., Kern S. et al.Efficacy and safery of thrombolytic therapy after initially unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective clinical trial. Lancet. 2001; 357: 1583—1585.
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    The risk of haemorrhage was found to be small after limited [12] or even prolonged [13] cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This encouraged preliminary studies of fibrinolysis as a deliberate treatment of cardiac arrest
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    . A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs [16,17]. Now a major international trial is under way to study the efficacy of fibrinolysis for cases of cardiac arrest that are not responsive to immediate defibrillation [18].

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Lederer W., Lichtenberger C., Pechlaner C., et al.Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 108 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 2001; 50: 71—76.
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    The risk of haemorrhage was found to be small after limited [12] or even prolonged [13] cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This encouraged preliminary studies of fibrinolysis as a deliberate treatment of cardiac arrest
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    [14,15]
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    . A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs [16,17]. Now a major international trial is under way to study the efficacy of fibrinolysis for cases of cardiac arrest that are not responsive to immediate defibrillation [18].

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Schreiber W., Sterz G. F., Muellner M. et al.Thrombolytic therapy after cardiac arrest and its effect on neurological outcome. Resuscitation. 2002; 52: 63—69.
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    This encouraged preliminary studies of fibrinolysis as a deliberate treatment of cardiac arrest [14,15]. A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs
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    . Now a major international trial is under way to study the efficacy of fibrinolysis for cases of cardiac arrest that are not responsive to immediate defibrillation [18]. But even if fibrinolysis is shown to be of value in the current trial, much will remain to be explored: should the treatment be used only for refractory cardiac arrest; or for those who fail to regain con

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Lederer W., Lichtenerger C., Pechlaner C. et al.Long-term survival and neurological outcome of patients who received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2004;61:123-129.
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    This encouraged preliminary studies of fibrinolysis as a deliberate treatment of cardiac arrest [14,15]. A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs
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    [16,17]
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    . Now a major international trial is under way to study the efficacy of fibrinolysis for cases of cardiac arrest that are not responsive to immediate defibrillation [18]. But even if fibrinolysis is shown to be of value in the current trial, much will remain to be explored: should the treatment be used only for refractory cardiac arrest; or for those who fail to regain con

18
Spöhr F., Arntz H. R., Bluhmki E. et al.An international multicentre trial protocol to assess the efficacy and safety of tenecteplase during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: The Thrombolysis in Cardiac Arrest (TROICA) study. Crit. Care Med. 2005; in the press.
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    A better neurological outcome was also noted when survivors of cardiac arrest had received fibrinolytic drugs [16,17]. Now a major international trial is under way to study the efficacy of fibrinolysis for cases of cardiac arrest that are not responsive to immediate defibrillation
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    . But even if fibrinolysis is shown to be of value in the current trial, much will remain to be explored: should the treatment be used only for refractory cardiac arrest; or for those who fail to regain consciousness quickly; or for all except those who respond quickly to defibrillation?

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Negovsky V. A.Postresuscitation disease. Crit. Care Med. 1988; 16: 942—946.
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    We would have been much further along the path of establishing its role if the experimental work several decades ago by Negovsky and others had received more attention from physicians dealing routinely with cardiac arrest. Control of ventilation.On ventilation, Negovsky had strong views as is shown by the following quotation
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    : «After terminal states, brain;damaged patients need prolonged artificial ventilation. During uncon; sciousness, an early transition to spontaneous breath; ing is a mistake, and may be lethal» Many of us can recall cases for whom recovery has been jeopardized by failure to institute artificial ventilation for cases of cardiac arrest with respiratory problems or by premature withdrawa

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Vanicky I., Marsala M., Murar J. et al.Prolonged postischemic hyperventilation reduces acute neuronal damage after 15 min of cardiac arrest in the dog. Neurosci. Lett. 1992; 135: 167—170.
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    Respiratory support has dangers too that were not well recognized until recently, especially if hyperventilation is used, as has often been the case. It has been recommended to mitigate neurological damage both on experimental
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    and clinical [21] grounds. But controversy still surrounds the issue of constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to hyperventilation: most would now ensure that it is avoided both after head injury [22] and cardiac arrest [23].

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Oertel M., Kelly D. F., Lee J. H. et al.Efficacy of hyperventilation, blood pressure elevation, and metabolic suppression therapy in controlling intracranial pressure after head injury. J. Neurosurg. 2002; 97: 1045—1053.
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    Respiratory support has dangers too that were not well recognized until recently, especially if hyperventilation is used, as has often been the case. It has been recommended to mitigate neurological damage both on experimental [20] and clinical
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    grounds. But controversy still surrounds the issue of constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to hyperventilation: most would now ensure that it is avoided both after head injury [22] and cardiac arrest [23].

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Muizelaar J. P., Marmarou A., Ward J. D. et al.Adverse effects of prolonged hyperventilation in patients with severe head injury; a randomized clinical trial. J. Neurosurg. 1991; 75: 731—739.
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    It has been recommended to mitigate neurological damage both on experimental [20] and clinical [21] grounds. But controversy still surrounds the issue of constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to hyperventilation: most would now ensure that it is avoided both after head injury
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    and cardiac arrest [23]. It has additional disadvantages that are of special importance for victims of cardiac arrest: inappropriate ventilation may limit the number of chest compressions, reduce diastolic coronary perfusion pressure and limit systemic flow by increasing intrathoracic pressure, and induce respiratory alkalosis that shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the l

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Buunk G., van der Hoeven J. G., Meinders A. E.Cerebrovascular reactivity in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Stroke 1997; 28: 1569—1573.
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    But controversy still surrounds the issue of constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to hyperventilation: most would now ensure that it is avoided both after head injury [22] and cardiac arrest
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    . It has additional disadvantages that are of special importance for victims of cardiac arrest: inappropriate ventilation may limit the number of chest compressions, reduce diastolic coronary perfusion pressure and limit systemic flow by increasing intrathoracic pressure, and induce respiratory alkalosis that shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the left [24].

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Pitts S., Kellermann A. L.Hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. Lancet 2004; 364: 313—316.
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    It has additional disadvantages that are of special importance for victims of cardiac arrest: inappropriate ventilation may limit the number of chest compressions, reduce diastolic coronary perfusion pressure and limit systemic flow by increasing intrathoracic pressure, and induce respiratory alkalosis that shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the left
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    . This is not only a theoretical risk. Paramedics have been observed to be over-enthusiastic with ventilation to a degree that when replicated experimentally can prevent a successful outcome [25].

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Aufderheide T. P., Sigurdsson G., Pirrallo R. G. et al.Hyperventilationinduced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 2004; 109: 1960—1965.
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    This is not only a theoretical risk. Paramedics have been observed to be over-enthusiastic with ventilation to a degree that when replicated experimentally can prevent a successful outcome
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    . Negovsky would surely have agreed that the undoubted importance of judicious artificial respiratory support should not be extrapolated to hyperventilation on the grounds that some is good so more must be better!

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Negovsky V. A.Fifty years of the institute of general reanimatology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Crit. Care Med 1988; 16: 287—291.
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    Control of arrhythmias.The emphasis in the management of arrhythmias remains on defibrillation because this is where most benefit can be obtained. Negovsky was once more ahead of his colleagues in West. The following quotation confirms his interest in this subject
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    : «Because of the negative effects of electric impulse therapy on the myocardium, ways of lowering the dose of defibrillation charge while preserving its efficacy have been sought. A method was found and used as a basis for creating defibrillators generating bipolar impulses» Negovsky would not have been directly involved in this work, but he had Gurvic

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Gurvich N. I., Makarchev V. E.Defibrillation of the heart with biphasic electrical impulses. Kardiologya 1967; 7: 109—112.
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    A method was found and used as a basis for creating defibrillators generating bipolar impulses» Negovsky would not have been directly involved in this work, but he had Gurvich and Makaritchev as co-workers and was quoting a paper of theirs from 1967
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    , more than 20 years before bipolar defibrillation became popular in the West [28]! As a digression, one might mention that — in many respects — these years were not spent profitably in terms of effective control of arrhythmias.

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Winkle R. A., Mead R. H., Ruder M. A. et al.Improved low energy defibrillation efficacy in man with the use of a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. Am. Heart. J. 1989; 117: 122—127.
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    A method was found and used as a basis for creating defibrillators generating bipolar impulses» Negovsky would not have been directly involved in this work, but he had Gurvich and Makaritchev as co-workers and was quoting a paper of theirs from 1967 [27], more than 20 years before bipolar defibrillation became popular in the West
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    ! As a digression, one might mention that — in many respects — these years were not spent profitably in terms of effective control of arrhythmias. Only slowly has it become clear that antiarrhythmic drugs have little role in prophylaxis, with type I drugs in particular having a proarrhythmic effect [29].

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Moosvi A. R., Goldstein S., VanderBrug Medendorp S. et al.Effect of empiric antiarrhythmic therapy in resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1990; 65: 1192—1197.
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    As a digression, one might mention that — in many respects — these years were not spent profitably in terms of effective control of arrhythmias. Only slowly has it become clear that antiarrhythmic drugs have little role in prophylaxis, with type I drugs in particular having a proarrhythmic effect
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    . In terms of the value of drugs we can be sure of the efficacy of cardioversion (ideally now with bipolar shocks!) for severe unstable rhythms, and we have reasonable observational evidence for the value of atropine.

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The CASCADE Investigators. Randomized antiarrhythmic drug therapy in survivors of cardiac arrest (the CASCADE study). Am. J. Cardiol. 1993; 72: 280—287.
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    In terms of the value of drugs we can be sure of the efficacy of cardioversion (ideally now with bipolar shocks!) for severe unstable rhythms, and we have reasonable observational evidence for the value of atropine. Amiodarone is the best bet for tachycardias
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    but we have no real evidence that it improves survival from critical situations. Beta blockade is under-used. Esmolol, that seems to have an ideal profile for many critical tachyarrhythmias, has been largely ignored, and a recent study showed that beta blockade of any sort was used in only 11% of survivors admitted to one centre in the United Kingdom after cardiac arres

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Pepper C. B., Batin P. P. D., Bannister J. et al.Antiarrhythmic management and implantable defibrillator use in survivors of prehospital cardiac arrest without myocardial infarction in West Yorkshire. Heart 2000; 83: 312—315.
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    Esmolol, that seems to have an ideal profile for many critical tachyarrhythmias, has been largely ignored, and a recent study showed that beta blockade of any sort was used in only 11% of survivors admitted to one centre in the United Kingdom after cardiac arrest
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    . Yet the use of beta blockade predicts survival after cardiac arrest as shown in a recent multiple regression analysis [32], and its safety with careful use in heart failure — even with hypotension — is no longer in doubt [33].

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    Weston and colleagues reported in 1993 [61] that in Wales only three of 53 consecutive survivors of unexpected cardiac arrest had an electrophysiological study and none received an implantable defibrillator; 32 were not referred to a cardiologist. In a similar study from England published in 2000
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    , Pepper et al showed that of another 53 patients only eight had an electrophysiological study, six received an implantable defibrillator, but 29 were not seen by a cardiologist. The situation was little different in Sweden [62].

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Skrifvars M. B., PettiläV., Rosenberg P. H. et al.A multiple logistic regression analysis of in-hospital factors related to survival at six months in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 2003; 59: 319—328.
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    to have an ideal profile for many critical tachyarrhythmias, has been largely ignored, and a recent study showed that beta blockade of any sort was used in only 11% of survivors admitted to one centre in the United Kingdom after cardiac arrest [31]. Yet the use of beta blockade predicts survival after cardiac arrest as shown in a recent multiple regression analysis
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    , and its safety with careful use in heart failure — even with hypotension — is no longer in doubt [33]. I do not think that Negovsky with his powerful insight would have been impressed by this failure to exploit one of the few effective treatments for malignant arrhythmias, though I am not aware of any direct comments he might have made on this topic.

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    It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest [52, 53, 54] and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction [55] and stroke [56], but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role. In 2003, however, two studies
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    showed by multivariate analysis that it does have an independent effect on mortality. The first publication seeking to explore the benefit of intensive glycaemic management of critically ill adult patients was published only in 2001 [58].

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Rouleau J. L., Roecker E. B., Tendera M. et al.Influence of retreatment systolic blood pressure on the effect of carvedilol in patients with severe chronic heart failure. The carvedilol prospective randomized cumulative survival (COPERNICUS) study. JACC 2004; 43: 1423—1429.
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    Yet the use of beta blockade predicts survival after cardiac arrest as shown in a recent multiple regression analysis [32], and its safety with careful use in heart failure — even with hypotension — is no longer in doubt
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    . I do not think that Negovsky with his powerful insight would have been impressed by this failure to exploit one of the few effective treatments for malignant arrhythmias, though I am not aware of any direct comments he might have made on this topic.

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Roberts I., Yates D., Sandercock P. et alEffect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 1321—1328.
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    Few would agree that arterial transfusion has any role save in very special circumstances, and the role of corticosteroids is at least very contentious. Even in cases of head injury for which their use has long been fashionable in some countries, recent evidence suggests that they may do more harm than good
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    . Our respect for Negovsky's prescience in so many matters related to resuscitation does not require that we accept all his statements uncritically; he would not have wished any to do so!

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Vasquez A., Kern K. B., Hilwig R. W. et al.Optimal dosing of dobutamine for treating post-resuscitation left ventricular dysfunction. Resuscitation 2004; 61: 199—207.
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    The true benefit that comes from vasoactive drugs is more open to question despite the continued enthusiasm for noradrenaline, dobutamine, dopamine, amrinone, and salbutalmol — which all have strong advocates. A recent opinion
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    is pertinent in this regard: that there is no evidence for the efficacy of any pressor drug, but that most would treat persisting hypotension with a systolic pressure of less that 70 mmHg, usually with dobutamine.

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Negovsky V. A.Resuscitation and artificial hypothermia (USSR). N. Y.: Consultants Bureau, 1962 (in English).
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    Negovsky, however, it seems, had vision that was lacking in the West. His first publication on the subject that was available in the West was entitled Resuscitation and artificial hypothermia, published in New York in 1962
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    [36]
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    . I have been unable to obtain a copy but even the title indicates that he was one of the pioneers in therapeutic hypothermia whose ideas have taken so long to find acceptance. As long ago as 1954, experimental studies had shown that brain metabolism increased by 7% for every 1° C increase in temperature [37], and worse outcome was observed after cardiac arrest in the p

37
Rosomhoff H. L., Holaday D. A.Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermia. Amer. J. Physiol. 1954; 179: 85.
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16631
    Prefix
    I have been unable to obtain a copy but even the title indicates that he was one of the pioneers in therapeutic hypothermia whose ideas have taken so long to find acceptance. As long ago as 1954, experimental studies had shown that brain metabolism increased by 7% for every 1° C increase in temperature
    Exact
    [37]
    Suffix
    , and worse outcome was observed after cardiac arrest in the presence of fever [38]. Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later [39,40] and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961 [41].

38
Takino M., Okada Y.Hyperthermia following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med. 1991; 17: 419—420.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16715
    Prefix
    As long ago as 1954, experimental studies had shown that brain metabolism increased by 7% for every 1° C increase in temperature [37], and worse outcome was observed after cardiac arrest in the presence of fever
    Exact
    [38]
    Suffix
    . Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later [39,40] and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961 [41].

39
Benson D. W., Williams G. R., Spencer F. C., Yates A. J.The use of hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Anesth. Analg. 1958; 38: 423—428.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16816
    Prefix
    As long ago as 1954, experimental studies had shown that brain metabolism increased by 7% for every 1° C increase in temperature [37], and worse outcome was observed after cardiac arrest in the presence of fever [38]. Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later
    Exact
    [39,40]
    Suffix
    and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961 [41]. Yet randomized trials in victims of cardiac arrest were published only in 2002 [42,43] with benefits in both cerebral function and mortality.

40
Williams G. R., Spencer F. C.The clinical use of hypothermia following cardiac arrest. Ann. Surg. 1959; 148: 462—466.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16816
    Prefix
    As long ago as 1954, experimental studies had shown that brain metabolism increased by 7% for every 1° C increase in temperature [37], and worse outcome was observed after cardiac arrest in the presence of fever [38]. Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later
    Exact
    [39,40]
    Suffix
    and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961 [41]. Yet randomized trials in victims of cardiac arrest were published only in 2002 [42,43] with benefits in both cerebral function and mortality.

41
Smith R. M., Stetson J. B.Therapeutic hypothermia. N. Engl. J. Med. 1961; 265: 1097—1103, 1147—1151.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16912
    Prefix
    studies had shown that brain metabolism increased by 7% for every 1° C increase in temperature [37], and worse outcome was observed after cardiac arrest in the presence of fever [38]. Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later [39,40] and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961
    Exact
    [41]
    Suffix
    . Yet randomized trials in victims of cardiac arrest were published only in 2002 [42,43] with benefits in both cerebral function and mortality. They prompted an ILCOR advisory statement the same year [44] with the advice that «unconscious adult patients who have spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32/34° C for 12 to 2

42
Bernard S. A., Gray T. W., Buist M. D. et al.Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. New Engl. J. Med. 2002; 346: 557—563.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=17006
    Prefix
    Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later [39,40] and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961 [41]. Yet randomized trials in victims of cardiac arrest were published only in 2002
    Exact
    [42,43]
    Suffix
    with benefits in both cerebral function and mortality. They prompted an ILCOR advisory statement the same year [44] with the advice that «unconscious adult patients who have spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32/34° C for 12 to 24 hours when the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation»; it added that «such cool

43
The Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group. Mild hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. New Engl. J. Med. 2002; 346: 549—556.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=17006
    Prefix
    Benefit from controlled hypothermia to those in coma was reported only a few years later [39,40] and the topic was well reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1961 [41]. Yet randomized trials in victims of cardiac arrest were published only in 2002
    Exact
    [42,43]
    Suffix
    with benefits in both cerebral function and mortality. They prompted an ILCOR advisory statement the same year [44] with the advice that «unconscious adult patients who have spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32/34° C for 12 to 24 hours when the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation»; it added that «such cool

44
Nolan J. P., Morley P. T., Vanden Hoek et al.Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. An advisory statement by the advanced life support task force of the international liaison committee on resuscitation. Resuscitation 2003; 57: 231—235.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=17135
    Prefix
    Yet randomized trials in victims of cardiac arrest were published only in 2002 [42,43] with benefits in both cerebral function and mortality. They prompted an ILCOR advisory statement the same year
    Exact
    [44]
    Suffix
    with the advice that «unconscious adult patients who have spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32/34° C for 12 to 24 hours when the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation»; it added that «such cooling may also be beneficial for other rhythms or in-hospital cardiac arrest».

45
Wolberg A. S., Meng Z. H., Monroe D. M. et al.A systemic evaluation of the effect of temperature on coagulation enzyme activity and platelet function. J. Trauma 2004; 56: 1221—1228.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=18355
    Prefix
    Control of temperature in critical care is not, however, simply a matter of lowering body temperature. Studies show that judicious increase in body temperature — at least to normal values — also has a role when haemorrhage is a problem in cases of trauma to combat platelet dysfunction
    Exact
    [45]
    Suffix
    , but this too remains poorly investigated and even controversial. While control of temperature was being disregarded, other methods of cerebral protection were explored and used with enthusiasm.

46
Brain resuscitation trial 1 study group. Randomized clinical study of thiopental loading in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. New Engl. J. Med. 1986; 314: 397—403.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=18603
    Prefix
    — at least to normal values — also has a role when haemorrhage is a problem in cases of trauma to combat platelet dysfunction [45], but this too remains poorly investigated and even controversial. While control of temperature was being disregarded, other methods of cerebral protection were explored and used with enthusiasm. They included the use of barbiturates
    Exact
    [46]
    Suffix
    , steroids [47], calcium channel blockers [48, 49]. None was eventually shown to bring benefit. Control of metabolic abnormalities.Negovsky's concepts went beyond what we generally regard as metabolic disturbances.

47
Jastremski M., Sutton;Tyrell K., Vaagenes P. et al.Glucocorticoid treatment does not improve neurological recovery following cardiac arrest. JAMA 1989; 262: 3427—3430.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=18620
    Prefix
    to normal values — also has a role when haemorrhage is a problem in cases of trauma to combat platelet dysfunction [45], but this too remains poorly investigated and even controversial. While control of temperature was being disregarded, other methods of cerebral protection were explored and used with enthusiasm. They included the use of barbiturates [46], steroids
    Exact
    [47]
    Suffix
    , calcium channel blockers [48, 49]. None was eventually shown to bring benefit. Control of metabolic abnormalities.Negovsky's concepts went beyond what we generally regard as metabolic disturbances.

48
Roine R. O., Kaste M., Kinnunen A. et al.Nimodipine after resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. JAMA 1990; 264: 3171—3177.
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=18653
    Prefix
    While control of temperature was being disregarded, other methods of cerebral protection were explored and used with enthusiasm. They included the use of barbiturates [46], steroids [47], calcium channel blockers
    Exact
    [48, 49]
    Suffix
    . None was eventually shown to bring benefit. Control of metabolic abnormalities.Negovsky's concepts went beyond what we generally regard as metabolic disturbances. With Zacs, he wrote [50]: «The studies carried out at our institute over many years show that any terminal state, regardless of its etiology, is accompanies by «toxemia».

49
Brain resuscitation trial 2 group. A randomized clinical study of a calcium-entry blocker (lidoflazine) in the treatment of comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991; 324: 1225—1231.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=18653
    Prefix
    While control of temperature was being disregarded, other methods of cerebral protection were explored and used with enthusiasm. They included the use of barbiturates [46], steroids [47], calcium channel blockers
    Exact
    [48, 49]
    Suffix
    . None was eventually shown to bring benefit. Control of metabolic abnormalities.Negovsky's concepts went beyond what we generally regard as metabolic disturbances. With Zacs, he wrote [50]: «The studies carried out at our institute over many years show that any terminal state, regardless of its etiology, is accompanies by «toxemia».

50
Negovsky V. A, Zaks I. O.Endogenous intoxication on the pathogenesis of postresuscitation disease. Anaesthesiol. Reanim. 1982; 3: 27.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=18855
    Prefix
    They included the use of barbiturates [46], steroids [47], calcium channel blockers [48, 49]. None was eventually shown to bring benefit. Control of metabolic abnormalities.Negovsky's concepts went beyond what we generally regard as metabolic disturbances. With Zacs, he wrote
    Exact
    [50]
    Suffix
    : «The studies carried out at our institute over many years show that any terminal state, regardless of its etiology, is accompanies by «toxemia». The more severe or prolonged the tissue hypoxia, the higher are the levels of many toxic products in the blood» Thus, whilst not forgetting the importance of acid-base balance, he also promoted the use of haemabsorptio

51
Weisfeldt M. L, Becker L. B.Resuscitation after cardiac arrest. JAMA 2002; 288: 3035—3038.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=19551
    Prefix
    Until recently most in the West would not attach much credence to the notion of benefit by removing important toxic substances from the blood. But this may be set to change. In 2002, Weisfeldt and Becker
    Exact
    [51]
    Suffix
    described three phases for the resuscitation after cardiac arrest: an electrical phase, a circulatory phase, and a metabolic phase. The last is in tune with Negovsky's concepts. For the metabolic phase, these influential scientists have made suggestions that include the use of bypass techniques to allow dilution of toxic metabolites.

52
Longstreth W. T., Inui T. S. High blood glucose level on hospital admission and poor neurological recovery after cardiac arrest. Ann. Neurol. 1984; 15: 59—63.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=20522
    Prefix
    Hyperglycaemia is one complication that arises from endogenous causes such as catecholamine and steroid release, but often exacerbated by the administration of adrenaline. Until recently, it attracted little attention but is likely to be important. It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest
    Exact
    [52, 53, 54]
    Suffix
    and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction [55] and stroke [56], but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role.

53
Calle P. A., Buylaert W. A., Vanhaute O. A. et al.Glycemia in the postresuscitation period. Resuscitation 1984;17 (Suppl 1): S181—188.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=20522
    Prefix
    Hyperglycaemia is one complication that arises from endogenous causes such as catecholamine and steroid release, but often exacerbated by the administration of adrenaline. Until recently, it attracted little attention but is likely to be important. It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest
    Exact
    [52, 53, 54]
    Suffix
    and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction [55] and stroke [56], but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role.

54
Mullner M., Sterz F., Binder M. et al.Blood glucose concentration after cardiopulmonary resuscitation influences functional neurological recovery in human cardiac arrest survivors. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1997; 17: 430—436.
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=20522
    Prefix
    Hyperglycaemia is one complication that arises from endogenous causes such as catecholamine and steroid release, but often exacerbated by the administration of adrenaline. Until recently, it attracted little attention but is likely to be important. It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest
    Exact
    [52, 53, 54]
    Suffix
    and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction [55] and stroke [56], but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role.

55
Wahab N. N., Cowden E. A., Pearce N. J. et al.Is blood glucose an independent predictor of mortality in acute myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic era? J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2002; 40: 1748—1754.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=20610
    Prefix
    Until recently, it attracted little attention but is likely to be important. It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest [52, 53, 54] and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction
    Exact
    [55]
    Suffix
    and stroke [56], but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role. In 2003, however, two studies [32, 57] showed by multivariate analysis that it does have an independent effect on mortality.

56
Williams L. S., Rotich J., Qi R., Fineberg N. et al.Effects of admission hyperglycemia on mortality and costs in acute ischemic stroke. Neurology; 2002: 59: 67—71.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=20627
    Prefix
    Until recently, it attracted little attention but is likely to be important. It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest [52, 53, 54] and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction [55] and stroke
    Exact
    [56]
    Suffix
    , but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role. In 2003, however, two studies [32, 57] showed by multivariate analysis that it does have an independent effect on mortality.

57
Langelle A., Tyvold S. S., Lexow K. et al.In-hospital factors associated with improved outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A comparison between four regions in Norway. Resuscitation 2003; 56: 247—263.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=20815
    Prefix
    It has been recognized as a marker of increased mortality after cardiac arrest [52, 53, 54] and is also a predictor of mortality after both myocardial infarction [55] and stroke [56], but in the past it has been considered an epiphenomenon — an association that was regarded as unlikely to have a causal role. In 2003, however, two studies
    Exact
    [32, 57]
    Suffix
    showed by multivariate analysis that it does have an independent effect on mortality. The first publication seeking to explore the benefit of intensive glycaemic management of critically ill adult patients was published only in 2001 [58].

58
Berghe G., Wouters P., Weekers F. et al.Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001; 345: 1359—1367
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=21080
    Prefix
    In 2003, however, two studies [32, 57] showed by multivariate analysis that it does have an independent effect on mortality. The first publication seeking to explore the benefit of intensive glycaemic management of critically ill adult patients was published only in 2001
    Exact
    [58]
    Suffix
    . No major studies have been reported specifically in cardiac arrest. Control of residual ischaemia.Although this topic interested Negovsky in his concern about postresuscitation disease, effective means of achieving it became available only later.

59
Cobb L. A., Baum R. S., Alvarez H. et al. Resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation; 4 hears follow-up. Circulation 1975; 52 (Suppl 3): 223—228.
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=21819
    Prefix
    Pathological changes of infarction usually have no time to develop in cases of sudden death, and the reliable identification of recent thrombus in a coronary artery is so time consuming that it is not suitable as an epidemiological tool. The extensive experience of prehospital resuscitation in Seattle
    Exact
    [59]
    Suffix
    suggested that recent ischaemia accounted for only about a half of all cases in those who survived. The remainder had no clinical, electrocardiographic, or enzymatic evidence of recent ischaemia.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=25292
    Prefix
    One management strategy will not suit all cases [64], but we have good evidence that most cases of unexpected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are due to coronary artery disease. Those known to have had a recent infarct may be at less risk of a recurrence than others
    Exact
    [59]
    Suffix
    , but angiography would be expected unless there are good reasons for avoiding detailed investigation; percutaneous intervention will follow in most cases and may be all that is required to remove vulnerability to malignant arrhythmias due to ischaemia.

60
Spaulding C. M., Joly L. M., Rosenberg A. et al.Immediate coronary angiography in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 1629—1633.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=22457
    Prefix
    Moreover, this evidence ante-dated the understanding of plaque rupture and the electrical events that could follow complications such as platelet embolization. Spaulding and colleagues in Paris have now thrown new light on this topic
    Exact
    [60]
    Suffix
    . They undertook coronary angiography immediately after admission on 75 consecutive victims of out-ofhospital arrest aged 30 to 75 whether or not they had regained consciousness. This study revealed that ischaemia was indeed the most common cause of sudden death in their population, though again some bias may have occurred because they were examining only survivors (but with se

61
Weston C. F. M., Avery P. G., Stephens M. R.Mangement of hospital survivors of pre-hospital ventricular fibrillation. J. Roy Coll. Phys. 1993; 27: 242—246.
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=23965
    Prefix
    Although powerful strategies are available to help prevent a recurrence of malignant arrhythmias in the survivors of cardiac arrest, they have been under-used in at least many European countries. Weston and colleagues reported in 1993
    Exact
    [61]
    Suffix
    that in Wales only three of 53 consecutive survivors of unexpected cardiac arrest had an electrophysiological study and none received an implantable defibrillator; 32 were not referred to a cardiologist.

62
Engdahl J., Abrahamsson P., Bång A. et al.Is hospital care of major importance for outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest? Experience acquired from patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitated by the same Emergency Medical Service and admitted to one of two hospitals over a 16-year period in the municipality of Göteborg. Resuscitation 2000: 43: 201—211.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=24492
    Prefix
    In a similar study from England published in 2000 [31], Pepper et al showed that of another 53 patients only eight had an electrophysiological study, six received an implantable defibrillator, but 29 were not seen by a cardiologist. The situation was little different in Sweden
    Exact
    [62]
    Suffix
    . The cost of implantable defibrillators is likely to be a major problem in most European countries. A report in 2004 [63] showed that in the United States the rate of utilization was 169 per million population; Denmark led the way in Europe with 28% of this figure, but all other countries had rates below 25% that of the American practice, some far below.

63
Mond H. G., Irwin M., Morillo C., Ector H.The world survey of cardiac pacing and cardioverter defibrillators: calendar year 2001. Pace 2004; 27: 955—964.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=24614
    Prefix
    from England published in 2000 [31], Pepper et al showed that of another 53 patients only eight had an electrophysiological study, six received an implantable defibrillator, but 29 were not seen by a cardiologist. The situation was little different in Sweden [62]. The cost of implantable defibrillators is likely to be a major problem in most European countries. A report in 2004
    Exact
    [63]
    Suffix
    showed that in the United States the rate of utilization was 169 per million population; Denmark led the way in Europe with 28% of this figure, but all other countries had rates below 25% that of the American practice, some far below.

64
Brooks R., McGovern B. A., Garan H, Ruskin J. N.Current treatment of patients surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 1991; 265: 762—768.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=25069
    Prefix
    It may or may not be inevitable, but appropriate treatment is being denied to many survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. What should be done? One management strategy will not suit all cases
    Exact
    [64]
    Suffix
    , but we have good evidence that most cases of unexpected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are due to coronary artery disease. Those known to have had a recent infarct may be at less risk of a recurrence than others [59], but angiography would be expected unless there are good reasons for avoiding detailed investigation; percutaneous intervention will follow in most cases and may

65
Negovsky V. A.Essays on reanimatology. Moscow; Meditsina; 1986: 253.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=27835
    Prefix
    Negovsky had commitment: the list of his interests related to resuscitation is impressive. But there are two more of which I have made no mention so far. He was sensitive to the philosophy of his science. One illustration comes from a quotation dating from 1986
    Exact
    [65]
    Suffix
    : «Life is our greatest gift. We must continue to struggle for people standing on the brink of life and death. Here lie the meaning and the aim of our sci; ence» But even more important is his commitment to peace [66]: «Our struggle for saving a life makes sense only if we live in peace, and prevent nuclear and space wars» Europe has changed hugely within t

66
Negovsky V.Crit. Care Med. 1988; 16: 290.
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=28073
    Prefix
    We must continue to struggle for people standing on the brink of life and death. Here lie the meaning and the aim of our sci; ence» But even more important is his commitment to peace
    Exact
    [66]
    Suffix
    : «Our struggle for saving a life makes sense only if we live in peace, and prevent nuclear and space wars» Europe has changed hugely within the lifetime of many of us. The wars that so disfigured our continent within the lifetime of many of us would be unthinkable in the future.

67
Baker P., Glasser S. B.Russia school siege ends in carnage hundreds die as troops battle hostage takers. Washington Post 4 September 2004. ВЛАДИМИР НЕГОВСКИЙ: ОТЕЦ РЕАНИМАТОЛОГИИ Лекция памяти В. А. Неговского, прочитанная на VII Научном Конгрессе
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  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=28861
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    Even within the borders of our own countries, acts of senseless terrorism bring unnecessary suffering and misery as occurred so recently in Russia when schoolchildren were the actual target of people set on evil
    Exact
    [67]
    Suffix
    . This event, probably more than any other, caused all of us great anguish. As members of the European Resuscitation Council we cannot prevent all conflict but we must play our part in making in creating an ethos that makes it less likely and less destructive.