The 4 references with contexts in paper F. Becker, K. Zimmermann, V. Minchenya, V. Lysenko, A. Chigarev, Ф. Беккер , К. Циммерманн , В. Минченя , В. Лысенко , А. Чигарев (2015) “ИНСПЕКЦИОННЫЕ РОБОТЫ С ПЬЕЗОПРИВОДОМ: МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ, СИМУЛЯЦИЯ, ОПЫТНЫЕ ОБРАЗЦЫ // INSPECTION ROBOTS WITH PIEZO ACTUATORS: MODELING, SIMULATION AND PROTOTYPES” / spz:neicon:pimi:y:2011:i:2:p:20-26

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Becker, F. Single Piezo Actuator Driven Micro Robots for 2-dimensional Locomotion / F. Becker. – Aachen : Electro. Proceedings of Workshop on Microactuators and Micromechanisms, 2010.
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    Following the principle «intelligence in the mechanics» [2] robots are in the design process (figure 1), which are controllable by only one actuator to perform motion in three degrees of freedom. In the following figures four mobile robots for 2-dimensional locomotion on a flat surface are presented. Figure 1 – Beetle-Robot
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    – autonomous, programmable and remote controlled robot driven by a single piezo actuator using resonance characteristics of elastic continua Design issues In choosing the right actuator the most critical issue to consider is the speed to excite the resonance characteristics of small mechanical devices.

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Blickhan, R. Intelligence by Mechanics. / R. Blickhan. – London : Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 365, 2007.
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    Using the theory of forced vibration of continua, especially bending vibration of beams and plates, it is possible to create systems which are small, light and cheap with a relative simple design. Following the principle «intelligence in the mechanics»
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    robots are in the design process (figure 1), which are controllable by only one actuator to perform motion in three degrees of freedom. In the following figures four mobile robots for 2-dimensional locomotion on a flat surface are presented.

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Pfeifer, G. Piezoelektrische lineare Stellantriebe. / G. Pfeifer. – Karl-Marx-Stadt : Wissenschaftliche Schriftenreihe der Technischen Hochschule, 1982.
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    E1 E2 h1 h2 hn ez er Adherend Neutral area ε( )zσ( )z Figure 2 – The distribution of strain and stress in a laminate of two layers In equation (3) and (4) the calculation of the bending stiffness of a homogenous plate as well as a laminate is shown, where  is Poisson’s ratio
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    : 1 1 2 2 1    ea hea hn, (1) 1 2 h h a, 1 2 E E e, (2) 12(1)2 3 v Eh Nhomogenuos  , (3) (1) 4(1)(1) 12(1) 222 2 3 11 ae aeaea v Eh NLaminate     . (4) The equations for the bending vibration of a circular plate and the general solution are written in (5) and (6), where ρ is the density, ω the natural angular frequency, λ the eigenvalue, J and I th

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Song, S.Y. Surface-Tension-Driven Biologically Inspired Water Strider Robot: Theory and Experiments / S.Y. Song, M. Sitti // IEEE Robotics and Automation Society: Transactions on Robotics 23. – No. 3. – 2007.
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    A high potential for the use in small micro robots have actuators made form piezoelectric materials, shape memory alloy (SMA), ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) and DC motors
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    . The main disadvantages of SMA and IPMC are the slow speed, the small force and the relative high power consumption. By consuming a large amount of energy DC motors have the possibility to create a very large displacement with a high speed and a moderate force.