The 23 reference contexts in paper M. Bezuglyi A., N. Bezuglaya V., S. Kostuk, M. Безуглый А., Н. Безуглая В., С. Костюк А. (2018) “ВЛИЯНИЕ ПРОФИЛЯ ЛАЗЕРНОГО ПУЧКА НА СВЕТОРАССЕЯНИЕ КОЖЕЙ ЧЕЛОВЕКА ПРИ ФОТОМЕТРИИ ЭЛЛИПСОИДАЛЬНЫМИ РЕФЛЕКТОРАМИ // INFLUENCE OF LASER BEAM PROFILE ON LIGHT SCATTERING BY HUMAN SKIN DURING PHOTOMETRY BY ELLIPSOIDAL REFLECTORS” / spz:neicon:pimi:y:2018:i:1:p:56-65

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    devices, which applies for noninvasive and low-invasive diagnostic of different indicators, conditions and diseases, use light-emitting diode or laser probing radiation with corresponding characteristics of energy and wavelength. Pulsioxymetry, glucose metering, chromometry, mexametery, laser Doppler flowmetry, and optical profilometry
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    create small by nomenclature, but the most numerous by production group of optical methods, which are widely used in biomedical and laboratory practice. Considering that mentioned methods use light, which is reflected and/or transmitted and the main light scattering organ is human skin, the evaluation of influence of its optical properties on the indicators of the
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    which is reflected and/or transmitted and the main light scattering organ is human skin, the evaluation of influence of its optical properties on the indicators of the registered light is important and actual problem. In more complicated systems of optical noninvasive diagnostic (like optical diffuse or coherent tomography, confocal microscopy, and dermatoscopy)
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    , there takes into consideration light scattering and light absorption properties of human skin during the process of medical visualization. Each of the mentioned methods allows estimation of skin integument structure in normal state or during pathologies in different depth and at different resolutions.
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    The advantage of noninvasive research methods against traditional biopsy is not only the ability of fast receiving of cell image, tissue, and skin relief into mode, but also dynamical objectification of observation and evaluation of light therapy efficiency. Authors
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    notes that interaction between light and skin is complicated due to the multilayer and multicomponent structures of skin. Corneous layer reflects 5–7 % of incident radiation. Collimated beam of light transforms into diffusive owing to microscopic heterogeneity in the boundary of air and corneous layer.
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    Absorption of scattered light by skin pigments provide quantitative information about concentration of bilirubin, melanin, water, saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, actual content of different absorbers in tissues and blood, and this form the basis for the number of previously mentioned methods
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    . Significant penetration of visible and near infrared light through the skin inside the human organism, especially in the wavelength range of «therapeutic window» (650–900 nm), is the basis for number of phototherapy methods [5].
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    Significant penetration of visible and near infrared light through the skin inside the human organism, especially in the wavelength range of «therapeutic window» (650–900 nm), is the basis for number of phototherapy methods
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    . Devices and systems, which realize these methods, refers to the class of photometers, according to measuring parameters and technical essence. The construction of such devices is typical for applied optical systems.
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    Taking into account general operation principles of mentioned biomedical photometers, they can be equipped by the measuring core with the shape of ellipsoidal reflector (ER). Thus allow increasing of specific weight of registered optical signal
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    . Practical experience of real and modelled experiments reveal that proper selection of parameters of reflector, source and photodetector [7] allow selection of necessary configuration of measuring tool for solution of different problems of biomedical experiment.
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    Thus allow increasing of specific weight of registered optical signal [6]. Practical experience of real and modelled experiments reveal that proper selection of parameters of reflector, source and photodetector
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    allow selection of necessary configuration of measuring tool for solution of different problems of biomedical experiment. The one of necessary condition for consideration of interaction of optical radiation with biological media is collimating of incident radiation, similarly to biophotonics in general and method of ellipsoidal photometry in particula
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    That is the reason why the interest of the research is the profile of energy distribution of radiation source in transversal direction to the light propagation and its influence on the features of ray tracing
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    in the system «biological media + ellipsoidal reflector» and on spatial distribution of scattered light. The aim of the study was the evaluation influence of the laser beam profile on the light scattering by human skin layers at ellipsoidal photometry.
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    The aim of the study was the evaluation influence of the laser beam profile on the light scattering by human skin layers at ellipsoidal photometry. Methods Output parameters of laser radiation source, such as spectral characteristics, divergence of the laser beam, average or continuous power, coherence degree and modes
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    , significantly influences the optical properties, which describes the interaction of such radiation with biological media. Since determination of optical properties of biological media (BM) solves using inverse methods of biomedical analysis, the proper consideration of 58 59 sourced parameters during solution of major problem will allow significant
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    Considering the advantages, formulated in for photometers with ellipsoidal reflectors, among the direct methods of modelling of light propagation in BM the article authors singles out the Monte-Carlo method
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    . During this method realization, it is possible to consider such parameters of source like power and energy distribution in transversal modes. From the other side, spectral characteristics of laser radiation are included in optical coefficients of scattering and absorption, scattering anisotropy factor, and in refractive index, that characterizes BM sample.
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    Power distribution in laser beam defines by properties of active resonator, which an have different stationary configurations of electromagnetic field (modes and oscillation type), thus the change of field directions in orthogonal secant of beam in each of coordinates
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    can be considered for specific laser type of selected power. For single-mode laser transversal mode TEM00 of lower order is under the Gaussian law of intensity distribution around the central maximum (1).
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    At the same time incident radiation on experimental sample is considered the same for three examined cases of transversal profile of its distribution. At both anatomically and optically, human skin can be represented as single-layer organ, or multi-layer one with layer quantity up to 10
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    . At the same time, separate layers are similar to each other, with minor differences in optical coefficients of scattering and absorption and the same refractive index [15]. For the research in this work there was selected fourlayered structure with optical properties represented in Table.
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    At both anatomically and optically, human skin can be represented as single-layer organ, or multi-layer one with layer quantity up to 10 [12–14]. At the same time, separate layers are similar to each other, with minor differences in optical coefficients of scattering and absorption and the same refractive index
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    . For the research in this work there was selected fourlayered structure with optical properties represented in Table. At the same time the thickness range of upper mentioned layers corresponds to Ref. [16].
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    For the research in this work there was selected fourlayered structure with optical properties represented in Table. At the same time the thickness range of upper mentioned layers corresponds to Ref.
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    . Analysis of optical properties describe the corneous layer and epidermis as strongly scattering layers in this structure. Dermis and adipose tissue are weakly scattering comparing to them.
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    Analysis of optical properties describe the corneous layer and epidermis as strongly scattering layers in this structure. Dermis and adipose tissue are weakly scattering comparing to them. Algorithmization of light propagation in multilayered BM by Monte Carlo method
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    include sequential considering of interactions of incident photon of initial weight with scattering (absorbing) center in separate layer. Results of modeling are coordinates of outgoing photon of reduced weight and directing cosines, which forms spatial distribution Ir I e ()rr , / 0 2202 = − Приборы и методы измерений 2018.
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    It represent adequately in both numerical comparison of calculated values of coefficients of diffuse reflection, absorption, and total transmittance; and analysis of photometric images of real and model experiments
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    . The quantity of emitted photons equals to 20 million for approximation of incident radiation parameters to possibilities of reception and registration system that use monochrome CCD camera.
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    Actually, in such case in formation of photometric image participates only rays, which interacts with reflectors. Table of scattered radiation in photo receiving plane of measuring system, considering mechanism of raytracing in system «BM+ER»
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    . At the same time there considers Fresnel conditions between media of human skin layers. Multi-layered skin concept considers that optical properties and thickness of corneous layer, epidermis, derma, and adipose tissue remain constant.
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    the research there was investigated the influence of energy distribution in transversal section inside the laser beam for separate layers of human skin in forward and backscattered light with using of mirror ellipsoid of revolution methods. As an informational-measuring system there was used photometer configuration (Figure 2), similar to experimental setup used in
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    , and Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm in system «BM+ER». Based on the zone-analysis principles of axially symmetrical images at ellipsoid photometry [18], there were received graphs of illuminance dependency (relation between intensity in pixels to area of corresponding zones) for middle and external rings of photometric images (Figures 4–7).
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    As an informational-measuring system there was used photometer configuration (Figure 2), similar to experimental setup used in [7, 8], and Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm in system «BM+ER». Based on the zone-analysis principles of axially symmetrical images at ellipsoid photometry
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    , there were received graphs of illuminance dependency (relation between intensity in pixels to area of corresponding zones) for middle and external rings of photometric images (Figures 4–7).
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    The mentioned error defines the accuracy photometric image central circle borders determination, where illuminance is equable, and correlate with sensitivity threshold value, expressed in Ref.
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    , as (100–α) %. Parameters of mai petal and middle ring can be used for investigation of scattering indicatrix by thick layers of BM, and therefore for determination of anisotropy factor of single scattering [18, 19].
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    Parameters of mai petal and middle ring can be used for investigation of scattering indicatrix by thick layers of BM, and therefore for determination of anisotropy factor of single scattering
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    . However, they were not considered in the current research. Figure 4 – Illuminance of the external and middle rings of photometric images for model of various thickness of corneous layer in forward (a, b) and backscattered (c, d) light respectively: P1 – infinitely thin beam; P2 – Gauss section beam; P3 – uniform intensity beam Figure 5 – Illuminance of the external and middle rings of photome
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    Figures represent that in both reflected and transmitted light the transversal section of laser collimated beam significantly influences on the light distribution in both edge zone (external ring) and middle ring
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    of photometric image of corneous layer and epidermis. Thus, the profile of incident beam for these light scatter tissues will have crucial influence on light scattering of multi layered human skin structure regardless of the thickness of mentioned layers.
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    Moreover, the influence of the profile on light scattering in forward direction for corneous layer is too big for small thickness of such BM, which will particularly influence on the investigation of human skin samples from lips, forehead, nose, breast genitals, belly, back, shoulder, forearm, and thigh
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    . Light of the middle ring and edge zone of graphs can be considered typical for different profiles of incident beam, because there observes typical correlation in mutual disposition of corresponding curves.
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