The 13 reference contexts in paper A. Zhukouski I., A. Anshakou, A. Biryla, U. Chyrykala, Y. Kanavalau, A. Nichyparchuk O., A. Savitski, A. Khrutchinsky A., S. Kutsen A., А. Жуковский И., А. Аншаков , А. Бирило , В. Чирикало , Е. Коновалов , А. Ничипорчук О., А. Савицкий , А. Хрущинский А., С. Кутень А. (2016) “ГАММА-СПЕКТРОМЕТР ДЛЯ РАДИАЦИОННОГО МОНИТОРИНГА АКВАТОРИЙ И ДОННЫХ ОТЛОЖЕНИЙ // GAMMA-SPECTROMETER FOR WATER AREAS AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS RADIATION MONITORING” / spz:neicon:pimi:y:2016:i:3:p:256-261

  1. Start
    9095
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    , in particular, water areas and sediments, is a prerequisite for ensuring radiation safety during normal operation of nuclear power plants, as well as in the case of emergency situations at nuclear fuel cycle enterprises. Due to technological requirements nuclear power plants are located near large bodies of water (seas, lakes, large rivers) for heat removal and core cooling
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    [1]
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    . Events at Fukushima nuclear power plant have showed that radioactive substances fell not only on fruit and rice fields, but also in ponds and ocean, thus water pollution monitoring represents an urgent and important task [2, 3].
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  2. Start
    9322
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    Events at Fukushima nuclear power plant have showed that radioactive substances fell not only on fruit and rice fields, but also in ponds and ocean, thus water pollution monitoring represents an urgent and important task
    Exact
    [2, 3]
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    . Significant amount of radionuclides which accumulates at the bottom as a result of sedimentation, are absorbed by fish and plants, and may eventually get into the human body [4]. Sediments radiation control is the same important task along with water radiation control.
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  3. Start
    9505
    Prefix
    Fukushima nuclear power plant have showed that radioactive substances fell not only on fruit and rice fields, but also in ponds and ocean, thus water pollution monitoring represents an urgent and important task [2, 3]. Significant amount of radionuclides which accumulates at the bottom as a result of sedimentation, are absorbed by fish and plants, and may eventually get into the human body
    Exact
    [4]
    Suffix
    . Sediments radiation control is the same important task along with water radiation control. Activity of controlled radionuclides is usually estimated by the method of representative sampling with transportation to laboratory, preparation and measurement in stationary gamma-spectrometers.
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    10264
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    associated with sample selection and preparation activities for radiation control of sediments, this technique has some major disadvantages associated primarily with a high probability of random and systematic errors. Due to difficulties with obtaining of quality bottom samples and time-consuming measurement, there emerges a need for activity measurement of controlled radionuclides by in situ
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    [5]
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    . Specialists in many countries are developing and manufacturing submersible gamma-spectrometers for water radiation monitoring [2, 5–11]. Theoretical and experimental researches presented in their works have been carried out to optimize and improve metrology and design parameters of equipment, aimed primarily for monitoring and water radiation control.
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  5. Start
    10396
    Prefix
    Due to difficulties with obtaining of quality bottom samples and time-consuming measurement, there emerges a need for activity measurement of controlled radionuclides by in situ [5]. Specialists in many countries are developing and manufacturing submersible gamma-spectrometers for water radiation monitoring
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    [2, 5–11]
    Suffix
    . Theoretical and experimental researches presented in their works have been carried out to optimize and improve metrology and design parameters of equipment, aimed primarily for monitoring and water radiation control.
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  6. Start
    10814
    Prefix
    and experimental researches presented in their works have been carried out to optimize and improve metrology and design parameters of equipment, aimed primarily for monitoring and water radiation control. At the same time, events at Fukushima nuclear power plants in 2011 have showed that determination of controlled radionuclides’ activity in sediments is still a high priority task
    Exact
    [3]
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    . Portable and lightweight submersible spectrometers with in situ measurement functionality allows for rapid estimation of specific activity of controlled radionuclides in water and bottom sediments with required accuracy [2, 5].
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  7. Start
    11040
    Prefix
    Portable and lightweight submersible spectrometers with in situ measurement functionality allows for rapid estimation of specific activity of controlled radionuclides in water and bottom sediments with required accuracy
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    [2, 5]
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    . The aim of theoretical researches have consisted in optimization of detection device construction, definition of metrological parameters of spectrometer in special measuring geometries, estimation effective position of detection device to measure specific activity radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs in bottom sediments by in situ, using Monte-Carlo models of detection device, water and bottom s
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  8. Start
    11505
    Prefix
    of detection device construction, definition of metrological parameters of spectrometer in special measuring geometries, estimation effective position of detection device to measure specific activity radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs in bottom sediments by in situ, using Monte-Carlo models of detection device, water and bottom sediments. Materials and methods Submersible spectrometer
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    [12]
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    (hereinafter spectrometer) is a modular instrument, consisting of temperature and impact resistant watertight stainless steel container (detection device) with scintillator probe based on NaI(Tl) detector of Ø 63 × 63 mm or Ø 63 × 160 mm size inside, deep water cable reel and tablet computer.
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  9. Start
    13875
    Prefix
    Numerical Monte-Carlo simulation is a generally recognized solution for verification, calibration, design optimization, and definition of spectrometers’ metrological parameters and basic provisions of measurement procedures, when reference materials are not available or cannot be created
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    [13–17]
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    . MCNP software (Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport, Los Alamos National Labaratory, USA) of version 4A has been used for Monte-Carlo simulation [18]. At the primary stage, the detection device verification has been carried out with standard spectrometric gamma sources containing gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs.
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  10. Start
    14037
    Prefix
    for verification, calibration, design optimization, and definition of spectrometers’ metrological parameters and basic provisions of measurement procedures, when reference materials are not available or cannot be created [13–17]. MCNP software (Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport, Los Alamos National Labaratory, USA) of version 4A has been used for Monte-Carlo simulation
    Exact
    [18]
    Suffix
    . At the primary stage, the detection device verification has been carried out with standard spectrometric gamma sources containing gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs. In the course of experiment and Monte-Carlo simulation the sources were located at a distance of 5 cm from lateral surface of container with detection device.
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  11. Start
    15284
    Prefix
    For determination of detection efficiency for specified value of gamma-radiation energy the effective volume of water has been taken into account, which is determined by the value of effective radius – radius of contaminated sphere generating more than 90 % of spectrometer response function
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    [19]
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    . Here the tolerance of spectrometer readings for water measurement, which volume is determined by effective radius, is within the range from 5 to 10 % relative to spectrometer readings for measurement of sphere with conventionally infinite radius containing gamma-photons uniformly distributed over its volume.
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  12. Start
    16034
    Prefix
    4π measurement geometry in the form of calculated theoretical spectra allowed to determine the relation of detection efficiency to the energy of gamma-radiation for spectrometer based on NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal of Ø 63 × 63 mm and Ø 63 × 160 mm size (Figure 2), which is used for calculation of specific activity of most dose-forming radionuclides
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    [20]
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    . Figure 2 – The relation of detection efficiency to gammaradiation energy in 4π measurement geometry based on NaI(Tl) scintillation detector: 1 – Ø 63 × 63 mm size; 2 – and Ø 63 × 160 mm size One of the most important spectrometer’s parameters in any geometry is sensitivity to measured radionuclide or relation of detection efficiency to energy of gamma-radiation.
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  13. Start
    17533
    Prefix
    a b Figure 3 – Monte-Carlo model of detection device and contaminated bottom sediments in in situ measurement geometry: a – Vertical; b – Horizontal. 1 – Seabed layer of water; 2 – NaI(Tl) detector of 63 × 160 mm size; 3 – Bottom sediments The density of Monte-Carlo sediment model has been taken as 1.3 g/cm3. See Table
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    [19]
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    for elemental composition of sediments used in simulation of gamma-radiation transfer in 2π measurement geometry. Table Elemental composition of sediments Chemical elementW/w, % Si24.32 Al5.07 Fe1.04 Ca0.31 Mg0.62 K1.21 Na1.08 O62.18 P0.03 S0.07 C3.53 H0.38 N0.19 Figure 4 shows the dependence of integral spectrometer response from the radius of sediment site contaminated by 1
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