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DOI: 10.21122/22209506201672129135
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Introduction
In recent years, special attention is given to
research on the development and production of highperformance solidstate receivers of the infrared
electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based
on the lowbarrier Schottky diodes, which have
virtually no competition in the uncooled microwave
receivers
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[1, 2]
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. This range of electromagnetic waves
has attracted the attention of researchers both from
theoretical and practical purposes due to its relevance
in various fields of science and technology. The whole
Planet Earth and all things therein, even the ice, emit
the electromagnetic radiation located namely in this
range [3, 4].
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This range of electromagnetic waves
has attracted the attention of researchers both from
theoretical and practical purposes due to its relevance
in various fields of science and technology. The whole
Planet Earth and all things therein, even the ice, emit
the electromagnetic radiation located namely in this
range
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[3, 4]
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. The need to develop and produce the
compact, inexpensive and reliable infrared facilities
primarily relate to the expansion and deepening
of space research. In the space it is almost ideal
conditions for the propagation of infrared radiation,
as there are no absorbing and scattering media.
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The
practical relevance of the devices, that are based on
these receivers, not only in the space industry, but
also in biomedical applications, life safety systems,
nondestructive testing systems, diagnostic systems
of cancer diseases and many other areas
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[5–8]
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.
The approach to the design of the receivers on
the basis of δdoped lowbarrier zerobias Schottky
diodes, which have beam leads [9, 10] and embed
into the planar logperiodic and spiral (broadband)
or dipole and slot antenna [11], is the most successful
developed in this direction.
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practical relevance of the devices, that are based on
these receivers, not only in the space industry, but
also in biomedical applications, life safety systems,
nondestructive testing systems, diagnostic systems
of cancer diseases and many other areas [5–8].
The approach to the design of the receivers on
the basis of δdoped lowbarrier zerobias Schottky
diodes, which have beam leads
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[9, 10]
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and embed
into the planar logperiodic and spiral (broadband)
or dipole and slot antenna [11], is the most successful
developed in this direction.
Upward frequency expansion of the operating
band is difficult due to a number of significant
limitations.
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The approach to the design of the receivers on
the basis of δdoped lowbarrier zerobias Schottky
diodes, which have beam leads [9, 10] and embed
into the planar logperiodic and spiral (broadband)
or dipole and slot antenna
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[11]
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, is the most successful
developed in this direction.
Upward frequency expansion of the operating
band is difficult due to a number of significant
limitations. The limit frequency of detection is
determined on the one hand by the loss resistance
and junction capacitance and on the other hand
by the quality of the plates of the raw material,
and the state of the
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determined on the one hand by the loss resistance
and junction capacitance and on the other hand
by the quality of the plates of the raw material,
and the state of the art of technology and parasitic
parameters depending on its design. Reducing the
serial loss resistance by increasing the semiconductor
doping is limited by achieved value of the dopant
concentration
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[12]
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. Junction capacitance of the zerobias diode with an active region square of several
square microns is currently equal to several fF. One
of the main parasitic parameters is stray capacitance
of the diode, which is determined by the permittivity
and the structure of the elastic dielectric disposed
between the cathode and anode beam leads as well
as their size and relative position.
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One
of the main parasitic parameters is stray capacitance
of the diode, which is determined by the permittivity
and the structure of the elastic dielectric disposed
between the cathode and anode beam leads as well
as their size and relative position.
However, the low efficiency of such receivers at
room temperature prevents their wide use in practice
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, because when the widths of the contact
and diode are equal to the microns fraction the edge
effects have a considerable influence on the currentvoltage characteristics of a semiconductor junction,
and the reduction of the width of the conducting
lines, leaded to the contacts, related to the technical
problems [16].
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at
room temperature prevents their wide use in practice
[13–15], because when the widths of the contact
and diode are equal to the microns fraction the edge
effects have a considerable influence on the currentvoltage characteristics of a semiconductor junction,
and the reduction of the width of the conducting
lines, leaded to the contacts, related to the technical
problems
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[16]
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.
The purpose of this work is to improve the
main parameters and characteristics of the integrated
receiver of midinfrared electromagnetic radiation
at the operating room temperature by modifying the
electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing
the distance between them.
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This
method is based on the configuration modification
of the inner parts of the metal electrodes, whose
dimensions are less than the wavelength of the
received electromagnetic radiation.
Known integral receiver
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[17]
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typically (Figure 1)
comprises a substrate 1, on which n+layer 2,
nlayer 3 and dielectric layer 4 with the cutout 13
sequentially deposited, and also includes a cathode 7
and anode 8 electrodes with the respective cathode
(ohmic) 5 and anode (rectifying) 6 contacts in the
layers 2 and 3.
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Computer experiment
Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics
of the proposed receiver was carried out in High
Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software
package, which is the industry standard of the threedimensional solutions of the applications
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[18]
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. This
software has a high accuracy, calculating speed
and usability. Using advanced algorithms based
on the finite element, integral equation and hybrid
computational methods are implemented to calculate
the behavior of 3D electromagnetic fields on the
arbitrary geometry with predefined properties of
materials.
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13 in the dielectric
layer 4 under the electrode 8 are selected equal to
1.5 × 3 × 0.1 μm, and the dimensions of the golden
electrodes 7 and 8 are equal to 15.25 × 0.5 × 0.5 μm.
The gap between the inner parts of the electrodes was
varied between 100 to 112 nm.
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the second, as the most appropriate, case on the gap
and second (curves 2) cases and the case given in
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[17]
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(curves 3) for the same range of wavelengths of
the electromagnetic radiation are shown in Figures 5
and 6.
setting between the inner parts of the electrodes is
shown in Figure 4.
Figure 3 – The dependences of the reflection losses of the
midinfrared electromagnetic radiation receiver with the
resonance nano and microstructures on the rounded radius of the inner part of the anode electrod
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concentric (curve 1) and concentric (curve 2) elliptic convex
shape relative to the inner part of the cathode electrode in
an elliptic concave shape
Figure 5 – The dependences of the reflection losses of the
midinfrared electromagnetic radiation receiver with the
resonance nano and microstructures on the wavelength
for the first (curve 1) and second (curve 2) cases and the
case given in
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[17]
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(curve 3)
Figure 6 – The dependences of the ratio standing wave of
the midinfrared electromagnetic radiation receiver with
the resonance nano and microstructures on the wavelength for the first (curve 1) and second (curve 2) cases
and the case given in [17] (curve 3)
According to the carried out calculations,
the minimum reflection losses are equal –26.99,
–57.75 and –44.
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resonance nano and microstructures on the wavelength
for the first (curve 1) and second (curve 2) cases and the
case given in [17] (curve 3)
Figure 6 – The dependences of the ratio standing wave of
the midinfrared electromagnetic radiation receiver with
the resonance nano and microstructures on the wavelength for the first (curve 1) and second (curve 2) cases
and the case given in
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[17]
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(curve 3)
According to the carried out calculations,
the minimum reflection losses are equal –26.99,
–57.75 and –44.15 dB (curves 1, 2 and 3, Figure 5),
respectively, at wavelengths of 5.93, 6.09 and
6.26 μm.
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of the integrated receiver for the first (curves 1)
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Moreover, the calculation of the direction pattern
Figure 8 – Directivity pattern of the midinfrared electromagnetic radiation receiver with the resonance nano and
microstructures on the elevation angle at the azimuthal
angle φ = 90 degrees for the first (curve 1) and second
(curve 2) cases and the case calculated for
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[17]
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(curve 3)
Conclusion
By numerical methods we studied the effect
of the electrodes configuration and the distance
between them in the lowbarrier Schottky diodes
on the main parameters and characteristics that
determine practical suitability of receivers of midinfrared electromagnetic radiation.
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