The 14 reference contexts in paper S. Zolotovskaya A., K. Wilcox G., A. Abdolvand, D. Livshits A., E. Rafailov U., С. Золотовская А., К. Вилкокс Г., А. Абдольванд , Д. Лившиц А., Э. Рафаилов У. (2015) “ЭЛЕКТРОННЫЙ КОНТРОЛЬ ВЫХОДНЫХ ПАРАМЕТРОВ ЛАЗЕРА НА ОСНОВЕ КРИСТАЛЛА CR4+:ФОРСТЕРИТ С ПАССИВНОЙ СИНХРОНИЗАЦИЕЙ МОД ДЛЯ НОВЫХ СИСТЕМ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ ИЗОБРАЖЕНИЯ И МАНИПУЛЯЦИИ // A PASSIVELY MODE-LOCKED CR4+:FORSTERITE LASER WITH ELEСTRONICALLY CONTROLLED OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS” / spz:neicon:pimi:y:2011:i:1:p:85-90

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    1314
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    The techniques, commonly used to generate ultrashort optical pulses from tunable solid-state lasers, include active and passive mode-locking. Passive modelocking of solid-state lasers has made tremendous progress during last decade, following the introduction of three novel techniques: additive-pulse mode-locking
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    [1]
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    , Kerr lens [2] and semiconductor saturable absorber (SESAM) [3] mode-locking. Of these, the first two techniques employ quasiinstantaneous third-order optical nonlinearity to create an artificial fast saturable absorber.
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    1329
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    Passive modelocking of solid-state lasers has made tremendous progress during last decade, following the introduction of three novel techniques: additive-pulse mode-locking [1], Kerr lens
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    [2]
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    and semiconductor saturable absorber (SESAM) [3] mode-locking. Of these, the first two techniques employ quasiinstantaneous third-order optical nonlinearity to create an artificial fast saturable absorber.
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    1378
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    Passive modelocking of solid-state lasers has made tremendous progress during last decade, following the introduction of three novel techniques: additive-pulse mode-locking [1], Kerr lens [2] and semiconductor saturable absorber (SESAM)
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    [3]
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    mode-locking. Of these, the first two techniques employ quasiinstantaneous third-order optical nonlinearity to create an artificial fast saturable absorber. SESAM mode-locking represents saturable absorbers in the classical sense based on the fast relaxation time of carriers.
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    2142
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    Bandgap engineering has allowed SESAM technology to be applied across a broad spectral range, with many different laser types. Quantum dotbased SESAMs (QD-SESAMs) have been used to assist and sustain passive mode-locking in a variety of solid-state laser systems emitting in the spectral range of 1,0–1,3 μm
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    [4]
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    . Laser sources with controllable output characteristics are of special interest to improve the flexibility of the systems for end users. Electronic control of laser parameters, in particular switching between continuous wave (CW) and pulse-durationcontrollable mode-locked operation, is beneficial for novel imaging and manipulation systems [5].
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    2502
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    Electronic control of laser parameters, in particular switching between continuous wave (CW) and pulse-durationcontrollable mode-locked operation, is beneficial for novel imaging and manipulation systems
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    [5]
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    . Employment of a single laser source, capable of fast switching between two operational regimes, can also be advantageous for trapping and manipulation of biological objects with subsequent photoporation or dissection [6, 7].
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    2738
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    Employment of a single laser source, capable of fast switching between two operational regimes, can also be advantageous for trapping and manipulation of biological objects with subsequent photoporation or dissection
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    [6, 7]
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    . Semiconductor edge emitter laser development has led the way in this, with the laser output controllable by applying a reverse bias to a p-i-n saturable absorber section [8, 9]. The concept of a voltage controllable p-i-n saturable absorber has also been applied to solidstate lasers, however, with limited success.
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    2927
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    laser source, capable of fast switching between two operational regimes, can also be advantageous for trapping and manipulation of biological objects with subsequent photoporation or dissection [6, 7]. Semiconductor edge emitter laser development has led the way in this, with the laser output controllable by applying a reverse bias to a p-i-n saturable absorber section
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    [8, 9]
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    . The concept of a voltage controllable p-i-n saturable absorber has also been applied to solidstate lasers, however, with limited success. An electrically-enhanced SESAM-like structure for passive mode-locking of a Ti3+:sapphire laser permitted a degree of control, demonstrating switching between pulses of duration one nanosecond to several hundreds of picoseconds [10].
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    3312
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    An electrically-enhanced SESAM-like structure for passive mode-locking of a Ti3+:sapphire laser permitted a degree of control, demonstrating switching between pulses of duration one nanosecond to several hundreds of picoseconds
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    [10]
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    . More recently a QD-based SESAM, with incorporated p-n junction, was used to stabilise a passively modelocked Yb3+:KYW laser under reverse bias voltage conditions [11]. In this paper, a passively mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser with electronically controlled pulse duration is demonstrated.
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  9. Start
    3487
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    -enhanced SESAM-like structure for passive mode-locking of a Ti3+:sapphire laser permitted a degree of control, demonstrating switching between pulses of duration one nanosecond to several hundreds of picoseconds [10]. More recently a QD-based SESAM, with incorporated p-n junction, was used to stabilise a passively modelocked Yb3+:KYW laser under reverse bias voltage conditions
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    [11]
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    . In this paper, a passively mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser with electronically controlled pulse duration is demonstrated. A DC voltage controlled p-n junction quantum dot semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is presented.
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    10233
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    The decrease in average output power from 47 mW, attained with unbiased QD-SESAM mode-locking, to 29 mW, obtained from the Cr4+:forsterite laser with voltage -4,5 V applied on the p-n junction QD-SESAM, was attributed to DC electroabsorption
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    [12, 13]
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    , contributing as additional nonsaturable loss introduced in the SESAM structure at higher bias. A red-shift of mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser central operating wavelength observed with an increase in applied reverse bias on the p-n junction QD-SESAM.
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    11054
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    Previously reported field dependent refractive index change for a broadband transmission measurements in the 1,3 μm region in a p-i-n InAs dot-in-a-well waveguide modulator, for a range of reverse bias (0– 10 V), revealed the refractive index change of 0,001
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    [14]
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    . A different pulse intensity profile, i.e. Gaussian for 0 V reverse bias on the SESAM structure and sech2 for an applied bias of –4,5 V, indicates the presence of high-order dispersion in the laser cavity for the unbiased SESAM configuration.
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    12333
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    A clear exponential decrease in the slow component of the characteristic recovery time of semiconductor saturable absorbers has been observed in a number of material structures with increasing reverse bias. Recovery time shorting to 700 fs has been measured in a p-i-n InAs dot-in-a-well waveguide structure at 1,28 μm with an applied reverse bias of 300 kV/cm at room temperature
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    [13]
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    . An exponential-like decrease of the mode-locked pulse width with increasing reverse bias on the absorber section in a two-section InGaAs QD laser diode was demonstrated and attributed to the exponential dependence of the absorber recovery time on applied reverse bias [15].
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    12618
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    An exponential-like decrease of the mode-locked pulse width with increasing reverse bias on the absorber section in a two-section InGaAs QD laser diode was demonstrated and attributed to the exponential dependence of the absorber recovery time on applied reverse bias
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    [15]
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    . A reduction in the simulated pulse duration from 8 to 3 ps, corresponding to about 2,7 times mode-locked pulse duration shortening, was observed for absorber lifetime reduction from 40 to 20 ps for multi-section laser diode implementations [16].
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    12871
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    A reduction in the simulated pulse duration from 8 to 3 ps, corresponding to about 2,7 times mode-locked pulse duration shortening, was observed for absorber lifetime reduction from 40 to 20 ps for multi-section laser diode implementations
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    [16]
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    . These may suggest that the experimentally observed 2,7 times reduction in the mode-locked pulse duration is dominated by a decrease in the saturable absorber recovery time under reverse biasing which should lead to a voltagedependent pulse shortening with a characteristic exponential decay.
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