The 13 reference contexts in paper V. Savitski G., S. Calvez, M. Dawson D., В. Савицкий Г., С. Калвез , М. Доусон Д. (2015) “ПОЛУПРОВОДНИКОВЫЙ ДИСКОВЫЙ ЛАЗЕР С ПЕРЕСТРАИВАЕМОЙ ДЛИНОЙ ВОЛНЫ ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ, ГЕНЕРИРУЮЩИЙ МЕТОДОМ РАЗГРУЗКИ РЕЗОНАТОРА ИМПУЛЬСЫ С ЭНЕРГИЕЙ НЕСКОЛЬКО МИКРОДЖОУЛЕ // MICRO-JOULE CAVITY-DUMPED WAVELENGTH-TUNABLE SEMICONDUCTOR DISK LASER” / spz:neicon:pimi:y:2010:i:1:p:45-50

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    Introduction In the past decade, semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs), also known as vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs), have proven to be attractive sources for the generation of highbrightness laser radiation
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    . The combination of a surface-emitting semiconductor gain element and a bulk external optical cavity has enabled SDLs to produce (multi)-Wattlevel single-transverse-mode operation with fundamental emission wavelength ranging from the red to 2.8μm [1–3, 5–6].
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    The combination of a surface-emitting semiconductor gain element and a bulk external optical cavity has enabled SDLs to produce (multi)-Wattlevel single-transverse-mode operation with fundamental emission wavelength ranging from the red to 2.8μm
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    . Furthermore, efficient intracavity nonlinear-frequency-conversion in these lasers has permitted output from the ultraviolet [1, 7–8] to the mid-infrared [9]. So far, these sources have primarily been operated in continuous-wave [1–3, 10] or quasi-continuous, highrepetition-rate mode-locked regimes [4], capitalizing on the nanosecond upper state lifetime characteristic of t
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    combination of a surface-emitting semiconductor gain element and a bulk external optical cavity has enabled SDLs to produce (multi)-Wattlevel single-transverse-mode operation with fundamental emission wavelength ranging from the red to 2.8μm [1–3, 5–6]. Furthermore, efficient intracavity nonlinear-frequency-conversion in these lasers has permitted output from the ultraviolet
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    to the mid-infrared [9]. So far, these sources have primarily been operated in continuous-wave [1–3, 10] or quasi-continuous, highrepetition-rate mode-locked regimes [4], capitalizing on the nanosecond upper state lifetime characteristic of the III–V semiconductor gain section.
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    semiconductor gain element and a bulk external optical cavity has enabled SDLs to produce (multi)-Wattlevel single-transverse-mode operation with fundamental emission wavelength ranging from the red to 2.8μm [1–3, 5–6]. Furthermore, efficient intracavity nonlinear-frequency-conversion in these lasers has permitted output from the ultraviolet [1, 7–8] to the mid-infrared
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    . So far, these sources have primarily been operated in continuous-wave [1–3, 10] or quasi-continuous, highrepetition-rate mode-locked regimes [4], capitalizing on the nanosecond upper state lifetime characteristic of the III–V semiconductor gain section.
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    Furthermore, efficient intracavity nonlinear-frequency-conversion in these lasers has permitted output from the ultraviolet [1, 7–8] to the mid-infrared [9]. So far, these sources have primarily been operated in continuous-wave
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    or quasi-continuous, highrepetition-rate mode-locked regimes [4], capitalizing on the nanosecond upper state lifetime characteristic of the III–V semiconductor gain section. However, recently, there has been increased interest in investigating their potential as sources of energetic nanosecond pulses.
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    Furthermore, efficient intracavity nonlinear-frequency-conversion in these lasers has permitted output from the ultraviolet [1, 7–8] to the mid-infrared [9]. So far, these sources have primarily been operated in continuous-wave [1–3, 10] or quasi-continuous, highrepetition-rate mode-locked regimes
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    , capitalizing on the nanosecond upper state lifetime characteristic of the III–V semiconductor gain section. However, recently, there has been increased interest in investigating their potential as sources of energetic nanosecond pulses.
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    However, recently, there has been increased interest in investigating their potential as sources of energetic nanosecond pulses. To-date, this regime of operation has been approached by gain-switching
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    with either pulsed semiconductor or solid-state laser pumps. Here, we introduce and demonstrate an alternative method, cavity-dumping, which exploits a CW-pumped gain section and an intracavity acousto-optic deflector to generate wavelength-tunable nanosecond pulses from an SDL.
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    Finally, it readily offers the ability to generate electrical trigger signals for applications requiring electrical/optical synchronization. Laser description The SDL cavity arrangement used in this initial demonstration around 1060nm is similar to that proposed in early papers on cavity-dumped solidstate lasers
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    . A four-mirror cavity was formed by an InGaAs/GaAs SDL gain/mirror structure [18] placed at the focus of a 150mm radius of curvature (ROC) mirror M1, and two curved mirrors with ROC of 205mm (Figure 1).
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    Laser description The SDL cavity arrangement used in this initial demonstration around 1060nm is similar to that proposed in early papers on cavity-dumped solidstate lasers [15–17]. A four-mirror cavity was formed by an InGaAs/GaAs SDL gain/mirror structure
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    placed at the focus of a 150mm radius of curvature (ROC) mirror M1, and two curved mirrors with ROC of 205mm (Figure 1). The semiconductor structure includes 10 strain-compensated quantum wells (QWs), distributed over 10 anti-nodes of the optical field, and a 35.5-pair Al0.2Ga0.8As/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector.
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    An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) was placed at the waist of the laser mode (mode radius 52m) between mirrors M2 and M3 (see Figure 1) with the output beam extraction being carried out as described in
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    . The modulator had plane-plane parallel surfaces with anti-reflection (AR) coatings centered at 1060nm. A 2-mm-thick birefringent filter (BRF) was placed in a long cavity arm between mirrors M1 and M2, and provided laser wavelength tuning.
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    Experimental results The dependence of the average output power of the diffracted beam on the incident pump power (on the diamond/semiconductor structure) is plotted in Figure 2 (a). The characteristic rollover in this power transfer curve is observed at ~20W of pump power. Such behavior is typical for SDLs
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    and is attributed to induced thermal effects in the gain material at high pump powers. In the remainder of this work, the pump power was kept constant at 20W to ensure the highest output power from the laser.
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    This could be further improved by adjusting the cavity length in order to achieve a ratio between the intracavity mode and the pump spot at the semiconductor chip slightly larger than unity. This should not come at the expense of a significant energy penalty if the trend follows the behavior observed during continuous-wave operation
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    . Figure 5 – Frequency response (a) (inset – output beam profile) and (b) pulse characteristics of the cavitydumped SDL with combined output (solid line) and single output (dashed line, for comparison) The performance of the laser when the two output beams (Outputs #1 and #2) are combined is shown in Figure 5.
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    Wavelenght, nm Wavelenght, nm The oscillation frequency was measured to be ~420MHz which corresponds to twice the frequency of the acoustic wave generated in the AOM. This is consistent with the fact that a fraction of the reflected beam is fed back into the cavity and this fraction undergoes two frequency shifts when being reflected in and out of the cavity
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    . Conclusions In conclusion, we report what we believe to be the first demonstration of a cavity-dumped SDL for the generation of wavelength-tunable, microJoule, nanosecond pulses. This form of operation takes full advantage of the high intracavity powers and broad wavelength tunability available in SDLs and the rapid and stable recovery of the intracavity field due to the sh
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