The 17 reference contexts in paper X. Yang, S. Gvetadze R., K. Ilkaev D., M. Lv, J. Sun, J. Li, C. Ян, Ш. Гветадзе Р., К. Илькаев Д., М. Лю, Дж. Суэн, Дж. Ли (2018) “Экстранодальная интраоссальная болезнь Розаи–Дорфмана в области нижней челюсти: описание клинического случая и обзор литературы // Extranodal intraosseous Rosai–Dorfman disease in the lower jaw: a case report and review of the literature” / spz:neicon:ogsh:y:2018:i:2:p:34-38

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    4478
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    Introduction Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy was first described by P. Destombes in 1965 and further deeply researched by J. Rosai and R. F. Dorfman
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    [1, 2]
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    . In most cases this benign condition manifests with pseudolymphomatous proliferation of the sinusoidal histiocytes in the regional lymph nodes. Cervical lymph nodes are most commonly involved though numerous cases of mediastinal, axillary, inguinal and retroperitoneal nodal group disease were reported [3].
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    4790
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    In most cases this benign condition manifests with pseudolymphomatous proliferation of the sinusoidal histiocytes in the regional lymph nodes. Cervical lymph nodes are most commonly involved though numerous cases of mediastinal, axillary, inguinal and retroperitoneal nodal group disease were reported
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    [3]
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    . Clinically in most cases this leads to bilateral, painless lymphadenopathy which may be anticipated by febrile incidents with elevated white blood counts. Extranodal lesions are observed in 45 % of the affected subjects [4].
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    5016
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    Clinically in most cases this leads to bilateral, painless lymphadenopathy which may be anticipated by febrile incidents with elevated white blood counts. Extranodal lesions are observed in 45 % of the affected subjects
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    [4]
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    . These extranodal cases are not associated with lymphadenopathy and may present with several locations concomitantly or as solitary lesions. Among extranodal sites most familiar are the digestive tract, upper airways, orbit, skin and long bones [5–7].
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    5265
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    These extranodal cases are not associated with lymphadenopathy and may present with several locations concomitantly or as solitary lesions. Among extranodal sites most familiar are the digestive tract, upper airways, orbit, skin and long bones
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    [5–7]
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    . Definitive diagnosis is established with pathological and immunohistochemistry exam. In the present paper we describe a patient, who presented with complaints about unilateral sensory deficiency in the area of mental nerve innervation and proved to bear intraosseous Rosai–Dorfman disease of the mandible.
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    9656
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    Subsequently after first presentations it became evident that this process may evolve in extranodal location with no associated lymphadenopathy. Osseous structures are seldom affected and more commonly lesions of long bones are described
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    [7]
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    . More than 70 % of the extranodal RDD are seen in the head and neck region [8]. Facial bones affection rate is reported to be low, being less than 8 % of all cases [9, 10]. When considering manifestation of the RDD the symptoms can be clearly divided into general and local.
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  6. Start
    9730
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    Subsequently after first presentations it became evident that this process may evolve in extranodal location with no associated lymphadenopathy. Osseous structures are seldom affected and more commonly lesions of long bones are described [7]. More than 70 % of the extranodal RDD are seen in the head and neck region
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    [8]
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    . Facial bones affection rate is reported to be low, being less than 8 % of all cases [9, 10]. When considering manifestation of the RDD the symptoms can be clearly divided into general and local. General symptoms (pyrexia, weight loss, leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate) are commonly exhibited in the classic form of RDD with lymphadenopathy.
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  7. Start
    9819
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    Osseous structures are seldom affected and more commonly lesions of long bones are described [7]. More than 70 % of the extranodal RDD are seen in the head and neck region [8]. Facial bones affection rate is reported to be low, being less than 8 % of all cases
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    [9, 10]
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    . When considering manifestation of the RDD the symptoms can be clearly divided into general and local. General symptoms (pyrexia, weight loss, leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate) are commonly exhibited in the classic form of RDD with lymphadenopathy.
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    10687
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    Teeth vitality in the affected area is maintained though the growing mass can to provoke dental mobility and/or root resorption. A small number of cases describing mandible involvement are available
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    [4, 11–13]
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    . Of these only 1 patient presented with a generalized RDD form with bilateral cervical, axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy, and local intraosseous RDD of the maxillary, mandible and zygomatic bones [11].
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    10899
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    Of these only 1 patient presented with a generalized RDD form with bilateral cervical, axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy, and local intraosseous RDD of the maxillary, mandible and zygomatic bones
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    [11]
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    . Radiologic features of RDD bone involvement are heterogeneous and range from well-outlined regularly bordered conglomerates to infiltrative lesions with ill-defined borders with or without periosteal spicule reaction [6, 7, 14].
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    11123
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    Radiologic features of RDD bone involvement are heterogeneous and range from well-outlined regularly bordered conglomerates to infiltrative lesions with ill-defined borders with or without periosteal spicule reaction
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    [6, 7, 14]
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    . Microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis remains the pillar of RDD diagnosis. One characteristic morphologic finding of the disorder is emperipolesis. As defined by J. G. Humble et al. (1956) emperipolesis is “the active penetration of one cell by another which remains intact” [15].
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    11418
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    One characteristic morphologic finding of the disorder is emperipolesis. As defined by J. G. Humble et al. (1956) emperipolesis is “the active penetration of one cell by another which remains intact”
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    [15]
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    . In RDD histiocytes have a round nuclei with distinct nucleoli and abundant amphophilic to eosinophilic granular or clear cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry exhibits qualities of antigen presenting cell or Langerhans cell (S-100 positive) and phagocytic histiocytes (α1-antitrypsin, lysozymes, CD-68, MAC-378 positivity and CD-1a negativity) [16].
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    11764
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    Immunohistochemistry exhibits qualities of antigen presenting cell or Langerhans cell (S-100 positive) and phagocytic histiocytes (α1-antitrypsin, lysozymes, CD-68, MAC-378 positivity and CD-1a negativity)
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    [16]
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    . Recently touch imprint cytology was suggested as a reliable diagnostic alternative for an open excisional biopsy technique for intraosseous RDD [7]. Extranodal intraosseous RDD may be considered fairly rare entity in the maxillofacial region.
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    11915
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    Immunohistochemistry exhibits qualities of antigen presenting cell or Langerhans cell (S-100 positive) and phagocytic histiocytes (α1-antitrypsin, lysozymes, CD-68, MAC-378 positivity and CD-1a negativity) [16]. Recently touch imprint cytology was suggested as a reliable diagnostic alternative for an open excisional biopsy technique for intraosseous RDD
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    [7]
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    . Extranodal intraosseous RDD may be considered fairly rare entity in the maxillofacial region. Several descriptions of facial bone involvement can be found in the literature, more often orbital and sinus disease is reported.
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    14129
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    The so called dumb chin syndrome was the first and the only manifestation of the intraosseous mandibular RDD as in most of the reported lower jaw involvements. This suggests that RDD is another lymphoproliferative neoplasia which should be included in the differential diagnosis of the dumb chin syndrome
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    [17]
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    . Treatment strategies which are advocated in the literature tend to depend on the form of the disease. Corticosteroid-based schemes are currently prescribed and are reported to be effective in cases of nodal RDD or extranodal disease without bone involvement [18].
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    14395
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    Treatment strategies which are advocated in the literature tend to depend on the form of the disease. Corticosteroid-based schemes are currently prescribed and are reported to be effective in cases of nodal RDD or extranodal disease without bone involvement
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    [18]
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    . Exceptional observations of steroid-resistant extranodal soft-tissue RDD were shown to benefit from radiotherapy [19]. On the other hand, surgical management either in form of conservative curettage or radical resection is generally chosen for intraosseous RDD.
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  16. Start
    14514
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    Corticosteroid-based schemes are currently prescribed and are reported to be effective in cases of nodal RDD or extranodal disease without bone involvement [18]. Exceptional observations of steroid-resistant extranodal soft-tissue RDD were shown to benefit from radiotherapy
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    [19]
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    . On the other hand, surgical management either in form of conservative curettage or radical resection is generally chosen for intraosseous RDD. If performed properly surgical treatment assures excellent prognosis though cases of recurrences were outlined [20].
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    14776
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    On the other hand, surgical management either in form of conservative curettage or radical resection is generally chosen for intraosseous RDD. If performed properly surgical treatment assures excellent prognosis though cases of recurrences were outlined
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    [20]
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    .
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