The 7 reference contexts in paper Afridi Saif Ahmad, Veksler Dina, Африди Саиф Ахмет, Векслер Дина (2017) “Творческий подход к развитию детей с особыми потребностями // A Creative Approach to Development of Special Children” / spz:iplus:atid15:118172

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    3452
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    is concerned with the study of the fundamentals and characteristics of the development of children with physical or mental defects, or, otherwise stated, of sensory, physically, cognitively, and neurologically disabled children, and the major problems of their education and upbringing. Defectology does not concentrate on the defect in itself, but the child weighed down by that defect. W.
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    Stern (1921)
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    pointed out the dual role of a defect long ago. This dual role of the defect in the developmental process and afterward in the formation of the child's personality must be taken into account as a fundamental fact, when we deal with such situation, when the child's development is complicated by some defect.
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    , the social environment in which the child is developed and a range of external influences on the child, some of which protect and enhance their development, while others compromise their developmental outcomes. But irrespective of the outcomes, the child’s development, complicated by a defect, represents both physical and psychological process, creating a unique personality of a child. L.
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    Vygotsky (1993)
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    introduced a new concept of special children as a developmental process, rather than a static condition: not as the sum of defects and shortcomings. The disorder is not perceived as tragedy. Psychological or physical insufficiency is determined by certain social arrangement, thus hampering children's full socializa tion.
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    Adler partly based the origins of giftedness on this understanding. Here is the idea, formulated by W. Stern: «What does not destroy me, makes me stronger.” Thanks to adaptation, strength arises from weakness and ability arises from deficiencies» (W.
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    Stern, 1923,
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    p. 145). It would be a mistake to assume that the process of compensation always and inevitably ends in success and always leads from the defect to the formation of a new capability. As each process of overcoming and struggle, compensation may also have two extremes outcomes-victory and failure- and between those two are all possible transitional points.
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    Vygotsky suggests that distinct symptoms may be observed in the complexly inmal type. A child with a defect is not necessarily a defective child. The degree of its For example, the activity theory of A. Leontiev and S.
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    Rubinstein (1973)
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    is ness through social interactions. In his explanation of internalization, he stated: Every The original notion of scaffolding assumes that a more knowledgeable person, tural tools (tool, stick, words, gestures). the same activities.
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    – No4, 12– ing, language and speech-related, etc.) lead to the child's exclusion from the sociodisabilities do not make their bearer disable. Substitution and compensation do not directed activity. side the child (intrapsychological)
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    (Vygotsky 1978).
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    L. Vygotsky also used the conOne of the most critical aspects of scaffolding is the role of the adult or the expert. task of the learner is to acquire the necessary competence to solve the problem. In the the subject for his introspection.
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    ’s personality and its requires focus and concentration on the object being photographed, it positively afIndoor photography is a fine method to develop more acute skills that require Social Role for a child plementation of activities, to choose the activity for them, which will have a goal, to chology. Theory and practice // International scientific journal. – 2016. – No2 (4). –
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    (Vygotsky, 1993).
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    Vigotsky states that the secondary developmental complications, the disable child can wholly approximate a normal type that might enable to win full the action is a conscious manifestation of human activity. what one could do with assistance.
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    The other side is the social pressure on the child to adapt to those cirment (... a completely original, exclusive, single, and unique relation, specific to the constitutes the intellect’s deficits, because there are possibilities for substitution, and
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    (Leontiev 1974).
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    A. Leontiev explained consciousness development as a meaningWith the help of the support and guidance of adults, children can learn the mateWertsch et al. (1980) suggests that if the idea of scaffolding is correct, then any them, and therefore, other people are very important in cognitive development. in the consciousness of the child due to direct social contact with adults.
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