The 10 reference contexts in paper Jonathan Isham, Michael Woolcock, Lant Pritchett, Gwen Busby (2003) “The Varieties of Resource Experience: How Natural Resource Export Structures Affect the Political Economy of Economic Growth” / RePEc:mdl:mdlpap:0308

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    capacity to handle shocks a determinant of economic 5 Columbine-tantalite (Col-tan) has recently been declared ‘the wonder mineral of the moment’: when processed, it is vital for the manufacture of capacitors and other high tech products. 6 The most recent literature on the effects of natural resources on growth includes Auty 1995; 2001;
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    Leamer et al 1999;
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    Leite and Weidmann 1999; Ross 1999, 2001; Sachs and Warner 1995 [2000], 1999; Stijns 2001; Nugent and Robinson 2001; Gylfason and Zoega 2002, Lederman and Maloney 2002. growth since the “commodity shocks” of the 1970s and 1980s (Rodrik 1999), but that institutional capacity itself varies across economies with different sources of export revenue, and that it is these export structures t
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    The second method was to compute four indices of ‘net export shares’ that mirror our four classifications of the types of exports: (1) manufacturing; (2) diffuse, (3) point source, and (4) coffee and cocoa. To construct these four indices, the World Trade Analyzer from 1980 was used to aggregate SITC codes at the two-digit level into our four export categories, following the approach of
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    Leamer et al. (1999). To
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    calculate the ‘net export share’ for each sub-category, net exports (X-M) of sub-category i is divided by the sum of the absolute value of net exports across all sub-categories (following the procedure in Leamer et al.,1999).
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    To calculate the ‘net export share’ for each sub-category, net exports (X-M) of sub-category i is divided by the sum of the absolute value of net exports across all sub-categories (following the procedure in
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    Leamer et al.,1999).
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    The four indices are then calculated as the sum of the net export shares for each sub-category in each of the four categories. By construction, these indices have a range of –1 to 1, with a higher number indicating a greater relative reliance on the corresponding category for export earnings.
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    There is no question that the manufactures exporters appear to 15 These “institutional” variables that have been used recently in a set of papers on the institutional determinants of economic growth (Knack and Keefer 1995; Rodrik 1999a,
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    Kaufmann et al. 2000;
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    Dollar 2000, Ritzen, Easterly and Woolcock 2000, and Easterly 2001). Growth rate data for the period 1957-1997 was compiled have higher institutional quality—the indicator is lower among the resource-exporter countries in all cases and for six of these this difference is statistically significant 16 .
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    Regulatory burden 0.40 -0.17 -0.14 -0.19 -0.11 ICRGLaw and Order Tradition 3.81 2.85 * 2.80 2.89 2.81 Quality of the Bureaucracy 3.71 2.59 ** 2.52 2.63 2.55 Freedom Political rights 3.98 3.28 3.50 3.26 3.12 House Civil Liberties 3.56 3.35 3.49 3.33 3.24 CPIA Property rights and rulebased governance 3.60 3.37 3.53 3.28 3.42 Notes: The sources for these institutional variables are
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    Kaufmann et al. (2000)
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    (for KKZ), Easterly (2000) (for ICRG and Freedom House) and World Bank (2002) (for CPIA). * significant at 5% level and ** significant at 1% level for Mann-Whitney test of similar distributions in resource-poor and resource-exporter countries.
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    2.85 * 2.80 2.89 2.81 Quality of the Bureaucracy 3.71 2.59 ** 2.52 2.63 2.55 Freedom Political rights 3.98 3.28 3.50 3.26 3.12 House Civil Liberties 3.56 3.35 3.49 3.33 3.24 CPIA Property rights and rulebased governance 3.60 3.37 3.53 3.28 3.42 Notes: The sources for these institutional variables are Kaufmann et al. (2000) (for KKZ), Easterly (2000) (for ICRG and Freedom House) and
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    World Bank (2002)
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    (for CPIA). * significant at 5% level and ** significant at 1% level for Mann-Whitney test of similar distributions in resource-poor and resource-exporter countries. from the Penn World Tables and the World Development Indicators (Worl
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    ) (for CPIA). * significant at 5% level and ** significant at 1% level for Mann-Whitney test of similar distributions in resource-poor and resource-exporter countries. from the Penn World Tables and the World Development Indicators
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    (World Bank 1999).
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    Measures of social and political data were adapted from Kaufmann et al. (2002)15, Easterly (2000), and World Bank (2002). 16 From the KKZ data, ‘rule of law’, ‘political instability’, ‘government effectiveness’, and ‘control of corruption’; from ICRG, ‘law and order tradition’ and ‘quality of the bureaucracy.
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    Mann-Whitney test of similar distributions in resource-poor and resource-exporter countries. from the Penn World Tables and the World Development Indicators (World Bank 1999). Measures of social and political data were adapted from
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    Kaufmann et al. (2002)
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    15, Easterly (2000), and World Bank (2002). 16 From the KKZ data, ‘rule of law’, ‘political instability’, ‘government effectiveness’, and ‘control of corruption’; from ICRG, ‘law and order tradition’ and ‘quality of the bureaucracy.
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    resource-poor and resource-exporter countries. from the Penn World Tables and the World Development Indicators (World Bank 1999). Measures of social and political data were adapted from Kaufmann et al. (2002)15, Easterly (2000), and
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    World Bank (2002).
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    16 From the KKZ data, ‘rule of law’, ‘political instability’, ‘government effectiveness’, and ‘control of corruption’; from ICRG, ‘law and order tradition’ and ‘quality of the bureaucracy.’ IV.
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    guilds and choral societies, it is hard to imagine how a policymaker interested in accelerating growth can change what we have identified as one possible underlying cause of poor performance—a country’s natural resource endowment makes for poor institutions. We admit: it is hard to get beyond this first glance. But here’s why we think it is important to shed light on these results.
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    World Bank (1998)
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    illustrated the power of institutions in development assistance, and what donors should (and most importantly, should not) do in the face of varied institutional performance among potential aid recipients.
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