The 11 reference contexts in paper Jan K. Brueckner, Ann G. Largey (2006) “Social Interaction and Urban Sprawl” / RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1843

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    AND ENVIRONMENT NOVEMBER 2006 An electronic version of the paper may be downloaded • from the SSRN website: www.SSRN.com • from the RePEc website: www.RePEc.org • from the CESifo website: Twww.CESifo-group.deT CESifo Working Paper No. 1843 SOCIAL INTERACTION AND URBAN SPRAWL Abstract Various authors, most notably
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    Putnam (2000),
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    have argued that low-density living reduces social capital and thus social interaction, and this argument has been used to buttress criticisms of urban sprawl. If low densities in fact reduce social interaction, then an externality arises, validating Putnam’s critique.
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    The longer commutes caused by sprawl are thought to create excessive traffic congestion and air pollution, and sprawl’s suburban focus is viewed as depressing the incentive to revitalize decaying downtown areas. Finally, commentators such as
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    Putnam (2000)
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    argue that the low-density suburban lifestyle associated with sprawl reduces social capital, leading to a less-healthy society.1 In response to these concerns, local governments have adopted a wide range of antisprawl measures, including urban growth boundaries (UGBs) and other related zoning policies, public land-purchase programs designed to protect vacant land, and price-based mechanisms such a
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    social capital, leading to a less-healthy society.1 In response to these concerns, local governments have adopted a wide range of antisprawl measures, including urban growth boundaries (UGBs) and other related zoning policies, public land-purchase programs designed to protect vacant land, and price-based mechanisms such as impact fees that are designed to slow the pace of development. See
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    Brueckner (2001)
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    for an overview of such policies; Nechyba and Walsh (2005) and Glaeser and Kahn (2006) offer further discussion. In appraising the attack on sprawl, Brueckner (2000, 2001) argues that criticism of urban spatial expansion is only justified in the presence of market failures or other distortions, which bias the normal expansionary effects of population and income growth in an upward direction.
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    .1 In response to these concerns, local governments have adopted a wide range of antisprawl measures, including urban growth boundaries (UGBs) and other related zoning policies, public land-purchase programs designed to protect vacant land, and price-based mechanisms such as impact fees that are designed to slow the pace of development. See Brueckner (2001) for an overview of such policies;
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    Nechyba and Walsh (2005) and Glaeser and Kahn (2006)
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    offer further discussion. In appraising the attack on sprawl, Brueckner (2000, 2001) argues that criticism of urban spatial expansion is only justified in the presence of market failures or other distortions, which bias the normal expansionary effects of population and income growth in an upward direction.
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    urban growth boundaries (UGBs) and other related zoning policies, public land-purchase programs designed to protect vacant land, and price-based mechanisms such as impact fees that are designed to slow the pace of development. See Brueckner (2001) for an overview of such policies; Nechyba and Walsh (2005) and Glaeser and Kahn (2006) offer further discussion. In appraising the attack on sprawl,
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    Brueckner (2000, 2001)
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    argues that criticism of urban spatial expansion is only justified in the presence of market failures or other distortions, which bias the normal expansionary effects of population and income growth in an upward direction.
    (check this in PDF content)

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    The social interaction measures that are used include a count of the respondent’s number of close friends, an indicator of whether the respondent has someone to “confide in,” and related variables. Similar exercises have been carried out by
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    Glaeser and Gottlieb (2006) and Borck (2006),
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    focusing more broadly on the determinants of social capital, which includes political involvement and civic engagement in addition to measures of social interaction. Glaeser and Gottlieb relate their social capital indicators to suburban vs. city residence, and Borck investigates how social capital is affected by city size.
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    to be unrelated to unobservable characteristics affecting social interaction.5 Following the theoretical discussion in the next section, the data and variables are described in section 3, and empirical findings are presented in section 4. Section 5 offers conclusions. 2. Modeling the Density Externality A density externality can be modeled in the context of a monocentric city, as seen in
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    Fujita (1989,
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    Ch. 7). However, a simpler spatial structure comes from assuming that individual land parcels are arbitrarily clustered together in space without the attractive force of a central business district. For further simplification, suppose that people consume land directly, with housing capital suppressed, and let consumeri’s land consumption (lot size) be denotedqi.
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    Given the above assumptions, the level of interaction can be writtenIi=f(n/A), with fbeing a smoothly increasing function under a positive density effect (so thatf->0).6 For completeness, however, it is helpful to also consider the possibility that a higher density reducesinteraction, as assumed by
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    Fujita (1989).
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    7In this case,f(·) is a decreasing function, withf-<0. Land is assumed to be available at a fixed opportunity costr,sothatconsumeri’s budget constraint isci+rqi=y,whereyis the common level of income. Eliminatingci, the objective function for consumeriis then given by U [ y−rqi,qi,f ( n/ ∑ qj )] .(1) The consumer choosesqito maximize (1), taking the lot sizes of other consumers,qk,k-=i, as parametr
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    Overall, the results in Table 5 show that the main finding of the paper, density’s negative effect on interaction, is reasonably robust to these two changes in the specification of the model. In addition to considering these other specifications, it is useful to compare the present results to selected findings from Gottlieb and Glaeser (2006) and
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    Borck (2006).
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    These papers focus on broad sets of social-capital measures, but a few of their regressions involve socialinteraction measures like the present ones. Using a survey variable indicating whether the respondent entertains friends at home, Glaeser and Gottlieb (2006) present a regression showing that such behavior is less likely in cities than in suburbs.
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    These papers focus on broad sets of social-capital measures, but a few of their regressions involve socialinteraction measures like the present ones. Using a survey variable indicating whether the respondent entertains friends at home,
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    Glaeser and Gottlieb (2006)
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    present a regression showing that such behavior is less likely in cities than in suburbs. However, this result, which is consistent with present findings, disappears in regressions for the period after 1990.
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    Whatever the reason, density has been shown to exert a negative influence on social interaction, undermining an important line of attack used by critics of urban sprawl. 5. Conclusion Various authors, most notably
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    Putnam (2000),
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    have argued that low-density living reduces social interaction, and this argument has been used to buttress criticisms of urban sprawl. But urban expansion must involve market failures if it is to be inefficient, and this paper shows that such a distortion indeed arises if low density depresses social interaction.
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