The 43 references in paper Simon Johnson, John McMillan, Christopher Woodruff (1999) “Property Rights, Finance, and Entrepreneurship” / RePEc:ces:ceswps:_212

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De Novo Private Firms: Empirical Results from the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland,” unpublished, CAE Foundation, Warsaw, April 1999.
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Choi, Jay Pil, and Thum, Marcel, “The Economics of Repeated Extortion,” unpublished, Columbia University,
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10
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11
Johnson, Simon, and Loveman, Gary W., Starting Over in Eastern Europe, Boston, Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
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12
Johnson, Simon, Kaufmann, Daniel, McMillan, John, and Woodruff, Christopher, “Why do Firms Hide? Bribes and Unofficial Activity After Communism,” unpublished, MIT, June 1999.
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13
Johnson, Simon, McMillan, John, and Woodruff, Christopher, “Contracts in Transition,” unpublished, MIT, April 1999a.
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14
Johnson, Simon, McMillan, John, and Woodruff, Christopher, “Entrepreneurs and the Order of Institutional Reform,” unpublished, MIT, April 1999b.
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15
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Lotspeich, Richard, “An Economic Analysis of Extortion in Russia,” unpublished, Indiana State
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20
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21
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Shyam-Sunder, Lakshmi, and Myers, Stewart C., “Testing Static Tradeoff Against
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Pecking Order Models of Capital Structure,” Journal of Financial Economics 51, 1999, 219-244.
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39
Appendix A: The Sample and the Survey The data reported here are from surveys undertaken in Russia and Ukraine in May and June 1997, and in Poland, Romania and Slovakia in September-December 1997. Pilot surveys were undertaken in Russia and Ukraine in January-February 1997, in Poland and Slovakia in March 1997
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Appendix Table 1 provides a summary of the characteristics of firms in the sample. Most were started in 1990 or after; many within 3 years of the survey. Only in Poland was a significant share of the firms started before 1988. The majority of firms in Russia and Ukraine were privatized
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In Poland, Romania and Slovakia, the sample was drawn so that one-quarter of the firms were from the same industry, metal parts and products. Nearly a fifth of the Ukrainian firms and one-eighth of the Russian firms also produce metal products. The remaining firms are spread across manufacturing sectors, as shown in Appendix Table 1. The survey was administered face-t
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Appendix B: Finance variables Because of the sensitivity of the questions, managers were asked for profit and reinvestment rates by category. For profits as a percent of sales, the categories were: negative, 0%, 1-10%, 11-20%, 21-40% and more than 40%. For the percentage of profits reinvested, the categories were 0%
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National Survey of Small Business from the Questionnaire The purpose of this survey is to gather information on institutional constraints and adaptation in SME Development in Poland/Slovakia/Romania (Interviewer: Read out appropriate country). This study is commissioned by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
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