The 39 references with contexts in paper Christopher F Baum, Hans Lööf, Pardis Nabavi (2015) “Innovation Strategies, External Knowledge and Productivity Growth” / RePEc:boc:bocoec:885

1
Aghion, P., P. Howitt, M. Brant-Collett, and C. García-Peñalosa (1998).Endogenous growth theory. MIT press.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=10034
    Prefix
    Section 5 reports results and interprets the main findings, and Section 6 concludes. 2 A BRIEF BACKGROUND FROM THE LITERATURE The importance of innovation for sustained growth is well established in the academic literature by
    Exact
    Aghion et al. (1998).
    Suffix
    An early recognition of innovation and technology as engines of growth is the contribution of Schumpeter (1934), arguing that without innovations the market economy would settle in a stationary Walrasian equilibrium.

2
Antonelli, C. (2006). The business governance of localized knowledge: an information economics approach for the economics of knowledge.Industry and Innovation 13(3), 227–261.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11678
    Prefix
    Firm capabilities also include links to other actors for knowledge accession and collaboration. Technical solutions relate product attributes, production processes and routines, and interaction approaches vis-à-vis input suppliers and customers. For a discussion, see
    Exact
    Foss (1996); Antonelli (2006).
    Suffix
    A major message from this literature is that firms’ capabilities differentiate firms. Capabilities take time to develop, require recurrent maintenance, and they are difficult and costly to imitate (Teece (2010)).

3
Antonelli, C. and A. Colombelli (2015). External and internal knowledge in the knowledge generation function.Industry and Innovation 22(4), 273–298.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16396
    Prefix
    Contributors to this literature include Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015). For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see
    Exact
    Antonelli and Colombelli (2015).
    Suffix
    Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

4
Antonelli, C., F. Crespi, and G. Scellato (2013). Internal and external factors in innovation persistence.Economics of Innovation and New Technology 22(3), 256–280.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16143
    Prefix
    This research supports the assumption that all firms in a local milieu such as a cluster or an agglomeration may not benefit from access to a high concentration of specialized, supplemented or varied knowledge diffused through voluntary (mostly pecuniary) and involuntary mechanisms. Contributors to this literature include
    Exact
    Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015).
    Suffix
    For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see Antonelli and Colombelli (2015). Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

5
Antonelli, C. and P. David (2015).The Economics of Knowledge and the Knowledge Driven Economy. Routledge.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16143
    Prefix
    This research supports the assumption that all firms in a local milieu such as a cluster or an agglomeration may not benefit from access to a high concentration of specialized, supplemented or varied knowledge diffused through voluntary (mostly pecuniary) and involuntary mechanisms. Contributors to this literature include
    Exact
    Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015).
    Suffix
    For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see Antonelli and Colombelli (2015). Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

6
Arellano, M. and O. Bover (1995). Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models.Journal of Econometrics 68(1), 29– 51.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=23774
    Prefix
    The long-run effect is a nonlinear function of the coefficients of the explanatory variables and the lagged dependent variable in Equation (1). This is an alternative method to obtain a standard error for the long-run effect in a dynamic panel data model. To estimate Equation (1), we use the two-step system GMM estimator developed by
    Exact
    Arellano and Bover (1995) and Blundell and Bond (1998).
    Suffix
    This approach combines equations in differences of the variables with equations in levels of the variables. The validity of the instruments in the model is evaluated with the Sargan–Hansen test of overidentifying restrictions whereas the Arellano--Bond AR(2) test is used for identifying possible second-order serial correlation. 13 An advantage with the system GMM estimator is that it requires fewe

7
Blundell, R. and S. Bond (1998). Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models.Journal of Econometrics 87(1), 115–143.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=23774
    Prefix
    The long-run effect is a nonlinear function of the coefficients of the explanatory variables and the lagged dependent variable in Equation (1). This is an alternative method to obtain a standard error for the long-run effect in a dynamic panel data model. To estimate Equation (1), we use the two-step system GMM estimator developed by
    Exact
    Arellano and Bover (1995) and Blundell and Bond (1998).
    Suffix
    This approach combines equations in differences of the variables with equations in levels of the variables. The validity of the instruments in the model is evaluated with the Sargan–Hansen test of overidentifying restrictions whereas the Arellano--Bond AR(2) test is used for identifying possible second-order serial correlation. 13 An advantage with the system GMM estimator is that it requires fewe

8
Breschi, S. and F. Lissoni (2001). Knowledge spillovers and local innovation systems: A critical survey.Industrial and Corporate Change 10(4), 975– 1005.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=17083
    Prefix
    capacity, firms might not be able to learn anything from even a rich external knowledge milieu and the “multiplier effect” of potential spillovers is nil. 9 Recent studies provide evidence for the thesis that the importance of access to external knowledge tends to increase in a knowledge-based innovation-driven economy. In their survey of literature on knowledge spillovers and local innovation,
    Exact
    Breschi and Lissoni (2001)
    Suffix
    argue that when firms are constantly innovating, there is a need to be close to a constellation of allied firms and specialised suppliers to smooth input-output linkages. Building on the literature reviewed briefly above, the next section formulates the hypotheses we will test empirically using two different sets of Swedish firm level data. 3 EMPIRICAL STRATEGY The general approach of this paper

9
Brown, J. R. and B. C. Petersen (2009). Why has the investment-cash flow sensitivity declined so sharply? Rising R&D and equity market developments. Journal of Banking & Finance 33(5), 971–984.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3349
    Prefix
    Along the technological 2 trajectory, firms learn by innovating and developing organisational competencies (Raymond et al., 2010). Other explanations include the relationships between innovation and market power or financial constraints as selection mechanisms
    Exact
    (Brown and Petersen, 2009).
    Suffix
    The novelty in our research is that we propose an approach that captures both the intensity of firm knowledge and the availability of external knowledge in the local milieu. To measure the closeness to external knowledge, we rely upon a model for knowledge accessibility suggested by Weibull (1976), which includes a time-sensitive parameter which can be applied for measuring a firm’s accessibility

10
Cantwell, J. and L. Piscitello (2015). New Competence Creation in Multinational Company Subunits: The Role of International Knowledge.The World Economy 38, 231–254.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=43815
    Prefix
    First, the issue of knowledge flows across firms that are not related to links within the nearby milieu of the firms is not explicitly addressed in this paper, except for the effect associated with multinational company groups. Recently
    Exact
    Cantwell and Piscitello (2015)
    Suffix
    have used openness of the regional industry and the regional economy to capture global knowledge diffusion, while other papers apply methods such as trade statistics, patent citations and strategic alliances.

11
Cassiman, B. and R. Veugelers (2006). In Search of Complementarity in Innovation Strategy: Internal R&D and External Knowledge Acquisition.Management Science 52(1), 68–82.
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14106
    Prefix
    However, recent research in the geography of innovation has established several stylized facts including that knowledge spillovers are typically geographically localized (Feldman (2003)) and fade with distance. This literature is further enriched by studies on technology and market relatedness in the local knowledge milieu
    Exact
    (Cassiman and Veugelers (2006)).
    Suffix
    Several studies on spillovers suggest a growing productivity potential from local supply of business service due to knowledge spillovers. However, the business service industry consists of a wide variety of firms with different role in the economy.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16143
    Prefix
    This research supports the assumption that all firms in a local milieu such as a cluster or an agglomeration may not benefit from access to a high concentration of specialized, supplemented or varied knowledge diffused through voluntary (mostly pecuniary) and involuntary mechanisms. Contributors to this literature include
    Exact
    Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015).
    Suffix
    For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see Antonelli and Colombelli (2015). Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

12
Cefis, E. and L. Orsenigo (2001). The persistence of innovative activities: A cross-countries and cross-sectors comparative analysis.Research Policy 30, 1139–1158.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2558
    Prefix
    A large number of studies confirm that there are systematic differences between firms with regard to their level of commitment in innovation efforts, as well as their sustained recurrence of the engagement in renewal activities. Such differences remain persistent over time
    Exact
    (Cefis and Orsenigo, 2001; Klette and Kortum, 2004; Peters, 2009; Peters et al., 2013; Duguet and Monjon, 2002).
    Suffix
    The picture that emerges is that a large share of firms is not engaged in innovation activities, some firms are innovative only occasionally, whereas other firms remain persistently innovative over several years.

13
Cohen, W. M. and D. A. Levinthal (1989). Innovation and Learning: The two faces of R & D.The Economic Journal 99(397), 569–596. 25
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1554
    Prefix
    Empirical studies mainly find that internal knowledge generation through innovation and external knowledge acquisitions are complements, and emphasize the importance of in-house capacity for absorbing external knowledge, consistent with seminal papers by
    Exact
    Cohen and Levinthal (1989, 1990) and Rosenberg (1990).
    Suffix
    There is also a substantial amount of evidence that knowledge transactions and spillovers that influence firm performance can be linked to knowledge sources in the local and regional environment. However, research is less clear about mechanisms for the interplay of knowledge within the company and its geographical environment.

14
Cohen, W. M. and D. a. Levinthal (1990). Absorptive Capacity : A New Perspective on and Innovation Learning.Administrative Science Quarterly 35(1), 128–152.
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1554
    Prefix
    Empirical studies mainly find that internal knowledge generation through innovation and external knowledge acquisitions are complements, and emphasize the importance of in-house capacity for absorbing external knowledge, consistent with seminal papers by
    Exact
    Cohen and Levinthal (1989, 1990) and Rosenberg (1990).
    Suffix
    There is also a substantial amount of evidence that knowledge transactions and spillovers that influence firm performance can be linked to knowledge sources in the local and regional environment. However, research is less clear about mechanisms for the interplay of knowledge within the company and its geographical environment.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=12048
    Prefix
    Capabilities take time to develop, require recurrent maintenance, and they are difficult and costly to imitate (Teece (2010)). Moreover, capabilities partly develop as a side effect of a firm’s renewal activities, including phenomena like learning by doing
    Exact
    (Nelson and Winter (1982); Cohen and Levinthal (1990); Phene and Almeida (2008)).
    Suffix
    The outcome of the renewal activities is expanded capabilities and enlargement of the firm’s technical solutions. Thus, differences in firms’ capabilities and internal knowledge resources help explain heterogeneity among firms regarding innovation and imitation/adoption (within firms and across firms) as well as productivity growth.

15
Conte, A. and M. Vivarelli (2005). One or many knowledge production functions? mapping innovative activity using microdata.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16143
    Prefix
    This research supports the assumption that all firms in a local milieu such as a cluster or an agglomeration may not benefit from access to a high concentration of specialized, supplemented or varied knowledge diffused through voluntary (mostly pecuniary) and involuntary mechanisms. Contributors to this literature include
    Exact
    Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015).
    Suffix
    For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see Antonelli and Colombelli (2015). Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

16
Dosi, G. and R. R. Nelson (2010). Technical Change and Industrial Dynamics as Evolutionary Processes. In B. H. Hall and N. Rosenberg (Eds.),Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, pp. 51–127. Elsevier-North Holland.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11078
    Prefix
    These facts include persistent performance heterogeneity and path dependency. Some firms are clearly above 6 average, whereas others are inferior, and that this patterns remains over fairly long time periods. For a review of this literature, see
    Exact
    Dosi and Nelson (2010).
    Suffix
    Recent studies on firm heterogeneity distinguish between capabilities and technical solutions. The former refer to a firm’s capacity to build up renewal capabilities and maintain a resource that includes renewal skills of employees, routines for organization of R&D and efforts to access external knowledge.

17
Duguet, E. and S. Monjon (2002). Creative Destruction and the Innovative Core: Is Innovation Persistent at the Firm Level?Universuty College London, Discussion Ppaer
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2558
    Prefix
    A large number of studies confirm that there are systematic differences between firms with regard to their level of commitment in innovation efforts, as well as their sustained recurrence of the engagement in renewal activities. Such differences remain persistent over time
    Exact
    (Cefis and Orsenigo, 2001; Klette and Kortum, 2004; Peters, 2009; Peters et al., 2013; Duguet and Monjon, 2002).
    Suffix
    The picture that emerges is that a large share of firms is not engaged in innovation activities, some firms are innovative only occasionally, whereas other firms remain persistently innovative over several years.

18
Duranton, G. and D. Puga (2005). From sectoral to functional urban specialisation.Journal of Urban Economics 57(2), 343–370.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=14385
    Prefix
    Several studies on spillovers suggest a growing productivity potential from local supply of business service due to knowledge spillovers. However, the business service industry consists of a wide variety of firms with different role in the economy.
    Exact
    Duranton and Puga (2005)
    Suffix
    distinguish between three broad categories of business services: standard business (e.g. banking or equipment leasing), sophisticated business services (e.g. research and development) and routinized business services (e.g. call centres).

19
Feldman, M. (2003). The locational dynamics of the us biotech industry: knowledge externalities and the anchor hypothesis.Industry and Innovation 10(3), 311–329.
Total in-text references: 2
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=13953
    Prefix
    literature also considers knowledge flows through long-distance links of international networks such as imports from input suppliers or export to customers abroad and transnational links for R&D collaboration with firms abroad. However, recent research in the geography of innovation has established several stylized facts including that knowledge spillovers are typically geographically localized
    Exact
    (Feldman (2003)) and
    Suffix
    fade with distance. This literature is further enriched by studies on technology and market relatedness in the local knowledge milieu (Cassiman and Veugelers (2006)). Several studies on spillovers suggest a growing productivity potential from local supply of business service due to knowledge spillovers.

  2. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16143
    Prefix
    This research supports the assumption that all firms in a local milieu such as a cluster or an agglomeration may not benefit from access to a high concentration of specialized, supplemented or varied knowledge diffused through voluntary (mostly pecuniary) and involuntary mechanisms. Contributors to this literature include
    Exact
    Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015).
    Suffix
    For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see Antonelli and Colombelli (2015). Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

20
Foss, N. J. (1996). Knowledge-based approaches to the theory of the firm: Some critical comments.Organization science 7(5), 470–476.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=11678
    Prefix
    Firm capabilities also include links to other actors for knowledge accession and collaboration. Technical solutions relate product attributes, production processes and routines, and interaction approaches vis-à-vis input suppliers and customers. For a discussion, see
    Exact
    Foss (1996); Antonelli (2006).
    Suffix
    A major message from this literature is that firms’ capabilities differentiate firms. Capabilities take time to develop, require recurrent maintenance, and they are difficult and costly to imitate (Teece (2010)).

21
Hashi, I. and N. Stojčić (2013). The impact of innovation activities on firm performance using a multi-stage model: Evidence from the Community Innovation Survey 4.Research Policy 42(2), 353–366.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=36185
    Prefix
    Hence, the improvement in the performance yesterday reduces the incentives for firms to invest their efforts in better performance (growth) today. Instead they decide to enjoy the fruits of their earlier activities. For a discussion on similar findings, see
    Exact
    Hashi and Stojčić (2013).
    Suffix
    Turning to other controls, the table report positive coefficient estimates for firms, but significant different from zero only in the CIS-sample. As could be expected, multinational firms have a higher growth rate than other firms,ceteris paribus.

22
Johansson, B. and J. Klaesson (2011). Agglomeration dynamics of business services.The annals of regional science 47(2), 373–391.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=24827
    Prefix
    Moreover, the system GMM estimator also accounts for individual specific patterns of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation of the idiosyncratic part of the disturbances. To measure the intensity of external knowledge, we apply a model for knowledge accessibility suggested by Weibull (1976), and developed by
    Exact
    Johansson and Klaesson (2011).
    Suffix
    The model identifies locationsiandj, and the time distance (commuting time) between each pair of locations (municipalities). For each location, the associated measure of total knowledge K (total R&D, number of universities, educated workers, etc.) is computed.

24
Klette, T. and S. Kortum (2004). Innovating firms and aggregate innovation. Journal of Political Economy 112(5), 986–1018.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2558
    Prefix
    A large number of studies confirm that there are systematic differences between firms with regard to their level of commitment in innovation efforts, as well as their sustained recurrence of the engagement in renewal activities. Such differences remain persistent over time
    Exact
    (Cefis and Orsenigo, 2001; Klette and Kortum, 2004; Peters, 2009; Peters et al., 2013; Duguet and Monjon, 2002).
    Suffix
    The picture that emerges is that a large share of firms is not engaged in innovation activities, some firms are innovative only occasionally, whereas other firms remain persistently innovative over several years.

25
Levinsohn, J. and A. Petrin (2003). Production Functions Estimating to Control for Using Inputs Unobservables.The Review of Economic Studies 70(2), 317– 341.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=21625
    Prefix
    To quantify the relationship between productivity and the input components of interest, we apply an approach aimed at capturing the effect of a particular category of combined knowledge sources on TFP growth, conditioned on the growth in the previous period and the TFP level in the previous period. Total factor productivity growth is estimated in two steps. Following
    Exact
    Levinsohn and Petrin (2003),
    Suffix
    we first compute TFP as the residual of the Cobb--Douglas production function, where the value added of the firm is the dependent variable and labor inputs (divided into highly educated and unskilled labor), material and physical capital are used as the determinants.

27
Love, J. H. and S. Roper (2009). Organizing the innovation process: complementarities in innovation networking.Industry and Innovation 16(3), 273–290. 26
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=16143
    Prefix
    This research supports the assumption that all firms in a local milieu such as a cluster or an agglomeration may not benefit from access to a high concentration of specialized, supplemented or varied knowledge diffused through voluntary (mostly pecuniary) and involuntary mechanisms. Contributors to this literature include
    Exact
    Feldman (2003), Conte and Vivarelli (2005), Cassiman and Veugelers (2006), Love and Roper (2009), Antonelli et al. (2013), Lööf and Johansson (2014), and Antonelli and David (2015).
    Suffix
    For an additional contribution and a survey of the field of research, see Antonelli and Colombelli (2015). Studying complementary between absorptive capacity and external knowledge, a main message from the literature is that firms near the knowledge frontier will benefit more from external advances in knowledge than other firms.

28
Lychagin, S., J. Pinkse, M. E. Slade, and J. V. Reenen (2016). Spillovers in space: Does geography matter?The Journal of Industrial Economics 64(2), 295–335.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=15482
    Prefix
    This implies that they are indirectly transmitting novel concepts and solutions from one customer to another. There are several papers in different strands of the literature that are close to our study.
    Exact
    Lychagin et al. (2016)
    Suffix
    use U.S. firm level panel data to assess how geographical, technological and product market spillovers contributes to productivity, and find that geography is important for productivity. A number of prior papers have also studied the complementarities between internal knowledge and external knowledge acquisitions.

29
Nelson, R. R. and S. Winter (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. pp. 929–964.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=12048
    Prefix
    Capabilities take time to develop, require recurrent maintenance, and they are difficult and costly to imitate (Teece (2010)). Moreover, capabilities partly develop as a side effect of a firm’s renewal activities, including phenomena like learning by doing
    Exact
    (Nelson and Winter (1982); Cohen and Levinthal (1990); Phene and Almeida (2008)).
    Suffix
    The outcome of the renewal activities is expanded capabilities and enlargement of the firm’s technical solutions. Thus, differences in firms’ capabilities and internal knowledge resources help explain heterogeneity among firms regarding innovation and imitation/adoption (within firms and across firms) as well as productivity growth.

30
OECD (2015). Frascati manual 2015.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=7857
    Prefix
    The disadvantage is that most innovative activities do not result in any patent or patent application. The second approach is to apply information from the Community Innovation Surveys (CIS), in which data from the EU member states are collected on a regular basis with harmonized information
    Exact
    OECD (2015).
    Suffix
    The attractiveness of the CIS data is that it includes information on the sustainability of the intramural R&D, as well as extramural R&D such as purchase of machinery and equipment and consultancy services.

31
Papke, L. E. and J. M. Wooldridge (2005). A computational trick for deltamethod standard errors.Economics Letters 86(3), 413–417.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=23338
    Prefix
    Second, theK-classification is based on the knowledge intensity of the firm’s location, which is close to 100% identical between year t and yeart+ 1according to the transition matrix reported in Table 3. Based on a procedure proposed by
    Exact
    Papke and Wooldridge (2005),
    Suffix
    we also compute the coefficients and standard errors for long-run effects. The long-run effect is a nonlinear function of the coefficients of the explanatory variables and the lagged dependent variable in Equation (1).

32
Peters, B. (2009). Persistence of innovation: stylised facts and panel data evidence.The Journal of Technology Transfer 34(2), 226–243.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2558
    Prefix
    A large number of studies confirm that there are systematic differences between firms with regard to their level of commitment in innovation efforts, as well as their sustained recurrence of the engagement in renewal activities. Such differences remain persistent over time
    Exact
    (Cefis and Orsenigo, 2001; Klette and Kortum, 2004; Peters, 2009; Peters et al., 2013; Duguet and Monjon, 2002).
    Suffix
    The picture that emerges is that a large share of firms is not engaged in innovation activities, some firms are innovative only occasionally, whereas other firms remain persistently innovative over several years.

33
Peters, B., M. J. Roberts, V. A. Voung, and H. Fryges (2013). Estimating
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=2558
    Prefix
    A large number of studies confirm that there are systematic differences between firms with regard to their level of commitment in innovation efforts, as well as their sustained recurrence of the engagement in renewal activities. Such differences remain persistent over time
    Exact
    (Cefis and Orsenigo, 2001; Klette and Kortum, 2004; Peters, 2009; Peters et al., 2013; Duguet and Monjon, 2002).
    Suffix
    The picture that emerges is that a large share of firms is not engaged in innovation activities, some firms are innovative only occasionally, whereas other firms remain persistently innovative over several years.

35
Phene, A. and P. Almeida (2008). Innovation in multinational subsidiaries: The role of knowledge assimilation and subsidiary capabilities.Journal of
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=12048
    Prefix
    Capabilities take time to develop, require recurrent maintenance, and they are difficult and costly to imitate (Teece (2010)). Moreover, capabilities partly develop as a side effect of a firm’s renewal activities, including phenomena like learning by doing
    Exact
    (Nelson and Winter (1982); Cohen and Levinthal (1990); Phene and Almeida (2008)).
    Suffix
    The outcome of the renewal activities is expanded capabilities and enlargement of the firm’s technical solutions. Thus, differences in firms’ capabilities and internal knowledge resources help explain heterogeneity among firms regarding innovation and imitation/adoption (within firms and across firms) as well as productivity growth.

37
Raymond, W., P. Mohnen, F. Palm, and S. S. Van Der Loeff (2010). Persistence of innovation in Dutch manufacturing: Is it spurious.Review of Economics and Statistics 92(3), 495–504.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=3197
    Prefix
    One strand of the literature stems from evolutionary theory and emphasizes the importance of technological trajectories. Along the technological 2 trajectory, firms learn by innovating and developing organisational competencies
    Exact
    (Raymond et al., 2010).
    Suffix
    Other explanations include the relationships between innovation and market power or financial constraints as selection mechanisms (Brown and Petersen, 2009). The novelty in our research is that we propose an approach that captures both the intensity of firm knowledge and the availability of external knowledge in the local milieu.

38
Roodman, D. (2009). How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata.Stata Journal 9, 86–136.
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=24348
    Prefix
    the instruments in the model is evaluated with the Sargan–Hansen test of overidentifying restrictions whereas the Arellano--Bond AR(2) test is used for identifying possible second-order serial correlation. 13 An advantage with the system GMM estimator is that it requires fewer assumptions about the underlying data-generating process and uses more complex techniques to isolate useful information
    Exact
    (Roodman, 2009).
    Suffix
    The estimator allows for a dynamic process, with current realizations of the TFP variable influenced by past TFP, and some regressors may be endogenous. Moreover, the system GMM estimator also accounts for individual specific patterns of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation of the idiosyncratic part of the disturbances.

39
Rosenberg, N. (1990). Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?
Total in-text references: 1
  1. In-text reference with the coordinate start=1554
    Prefix
    Empirical studies mainly find that internal knowledge generation through innovation and external knowledge acquisitions are complements, and emphasize the importance of in-house capacity for absorbing external knowledge, consistent with seminal papers by
    Exact
    Cohen and Levinthal (1989, 1990) and Rosenberg (1990).
    Suffix
    There is also a substantial amount of evidence that knowledge transactions and spillovers that influence firm performance can be linked to knowledge sources in the local and regional environment. However, research is less clear about mechanisms for the interplay of knowledge within the company and its geographical environment.

41
Schumpeter, J. (1934). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy.
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    Section 5 reports results and interprets the main findings, and Section 6 concludes. 2 A BRIEF BACKGROUND FROM THE LITERATURE The importance of innovation for sustained growth is well established in the academic literature by Aghion et al. (1998). An early recognition of innovation and technology as engines of growth is the contribution of
    Exact
    Schumpeter (1934),
    Suffix
    arguing that without innovations the market economy would settle in a stationary Walrasian equilibrium. The Schumpeterian view also considers the opportunity of other firms to imitate those firms that have reached a higher productivity level.

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Teece, D. (2010). Technological Innovation and the Theory of the Firm: The Role of Enterprise-Level Knowledge, Complementarities, and (Dynamic) Capabilities. In B. Hall and N. Rosenberg (Eds.),Handbook of the Economics of Innovation. North-Holland: Elsevier.
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    For a discussion, see Foss (1996); Antonelli (2006). A major message from this literature is that firms’ capabilities differentiate firms. Capabilities take time to develop, require recurrent maintenance, and they are difficult and costly to imitate
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    (Teece (2010)).
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    Moreover, capabilities partly develop as a side effect of a firm’s renewal activities, including phenomena like learning by doing (Nelson and Winter (1982); Cohen and Levinthal (1990); Phene and Almeida (2008)).

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Vega-Redondo, F. (2003).Economics and the Theory of Games. Cambridge university press.
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    Adoption processes of this kind could work against heterogeneity. The idea that other firms respond to ideas developed by competitors is a fundamental aspect of the neoclassical theory resembling various versions of Darwinian adjustments
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    (Vega-Redondo (2003)).
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    Empirical research in the Schumpeterian tradition has established several stylized and commonly accepted facts questioning the neoclassical prediction on convergence. These facts include persistent performance heterogeneity and path dependency.

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Weibull, J. W. (1976). An axiomatic approach to the measurement of accessibility.Regional science and urban economics 6(4), 357–379. 27 7 Tables
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    The novelty in our research is that we propose an approach that captures both the intensity of firm knowledge and the availability of external knowledge in the local milieu. To measure the closeness to external knowledge, we rely upon a model for knowledge accessibility suggested by
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    Weibull (1976),
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    which includes a time-sensitive parameter which can be applied for measuring a firm’s accessibility to external knowledge. For each firm in a local economy (municipality) we calculate this firm’s accessibility to external knowledge: (i) inside the own municipality, (ii) outside the municipality but inside its own functional region, and (iii) outside its functional region.

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    Moreover, the system GMM estimator also accounts for individual specific patterns of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation of the idiosyncratic part of the disturbances. To measure the intensity of external knowledge, we apply a model for knowledge accessibility suggested by
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    Weibull (1976), and
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    developed by Johansson and Klaesson (2011). The model identifies locationsiandj, and the time distance (commuting time) between each pair of locations (municipalities). For each location, the associated measure of total knowledge K (total R&D, number of universities, educated workers, etc.) is computed.